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Morphophonology
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes. Its chief focus is the sound changes that take place in morphemes (minimal meaningful units) when they combine to form words. Morphophonological analysis often involves an attempt to give a series of formal rules that successfully predict the regular sound changes occurring in the morphemes of a given language. Such a series of rules converts a theoretical underlying representation into a surface form that is actually heard. The units of which the underlying representations of morphemes are composed are sometimes called morphophonemes
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Phone (phonetics)
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound that, in a given language, if it were swapped with another phoneme, would change the meaning of the word. Phones are absolute, not specific to any language, but phonemes can be discussed only in reference to specific languages. For example, the English words kid and kit end with two distinct phonemes, and swapping one for the other would change the word's meaning. However, the difference between the p sounds in pun (pʰ, with aspiration) and spun (p, no aspiration) never affects the meaning of a word in English so they are phones and not phonemes
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Semiotics
Semiotics
Semiotics
(also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication. It is not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology, which is a subset of semiotics.[1][2] Semiotics includes the study of signs and sign processes, indication, designation, likeness, analogy, allegory, metonymy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems. Semiotics
Semiotics
is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication.[3] Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however
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Origin Of Language
The first language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. There is no consensus on the origin or age of human language. The topic is difficult to study because of the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition, and comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among animals (particularly other primates). Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection. This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study
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Second-language Acquisition
Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education. A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage, the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This interlanguage gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language
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Cherology
Cherology and chereme (from Ancient Greek: χείρ "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages. A chereme, as the basic unit of signed communication, is functionally and psychologically equivalent to the phonemes of oral languages, and has been replaced by that term in the academic literature. Cherology, as the study of cheremes in language, is thus equivalent to phonology. The terms are not in use anymore. Instead, the terms phonology and phoneme (or distinctive feature) are used to stress the linguistic similarities between signed and spoken languages.[1] The terms were coined in 1960 by William Stokoe[2] at Gallaudet University to describe sign languages as true and full languages. Once a controversial idea, the position is now universally accepted in linguistics. Stokoe's terminology, however, has been largely abandoned.[3] See also[edit]Emic unit Phonemes in sign languagesReferences[edit]^ Bross, Fabian. 2015
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Underlying Representation
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.[1][2] By contrast, a surface representation is the phonetic representation of the word or sound. The concept of an underlying representation is central to generative grammar.[3] If more phonological rules apply to the same underlying form, they can apply wholly independently of each other or in a feeding or counterbleeding order. The underlying representation of a morpheme is considered to be invariable across related forms (except in cases of suppletion), despite alternations among various allophones on the surface. Examples[edit] In many cases, the underlying form is simply the phonemic form
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Structural Linguistics
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
and is part of the overall approach of structuralism. Structural linguistics involves collecting a corpus of utterances and then attempting to classify all of the elements of the corpus at their different linguistic levels: the phonemes, morphemes, lexical categories, noun phrases, verb phrases, and sentence types.[1] De Saussure's Course in General Linguistics, published posthumously in 1916, stressed examining language as a static system of interconnected units
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Linguistic Anthropology
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life
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Forensic Linguistics
Forensic
Forensic
linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure
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Internet Linguistics
Internet
Internet
linguistics is a domain of linguistics advocated by the English linguist David Crystal. It studies new language styles and forms that have arisen under the influence of the Internet
Internet
and other new media, such as Short Message Service
Short Message Service
(SMS) text messaging.[1][2] Since the beginning of human-computer interaction (HCI) leading to computer-mediated communication (CMC) and Internet-mediated communication (IMC), experts have acknowledged that linguistics has a contributing role in it, in terms of web interface and usability. Studying the emerging language on the Internet
Internet
can help improve conceptual organization, translation and web usability
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Language Acquisition
Language
Language
acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language
Language
acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits,[1] because non-humans do not communicate by using language.[2] Language
Language
acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages. In addition to speech, reading and writing a language with an entirely different script compounds the complexities of true foreign language literacy. Linguists who are interested in child language acquisition for many years question how language is acquired, lidz et al
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Constraint-based Grammar
Constraint-based grammars can perhaps be best understood in contrast to generative grammars. A generative grammar lists all the transformations, merges, movements, and deletions that can result in all well-formed sentences, while constraint-based grammars, take the opposite approach, allowing anything that is not otherwise constrained. "The grammar is nothing but a set of constraints that structures are required to satisfy in order to be considered well-formed."[1] "A constraint-based grammar is more like a data base or a knowledge representation system than it is like a collection of algorithms."[2] Examples of such grammars includethe non-procedural variant of Transformational Grammar of Lakoff, that formulates constraints on potential tree sequences[3] Johnson and Postal’s formalization of Relational Grammar (1980), GPSG in the variants developed by Gazdar et al. (1988), Blackburn et al
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Language Assessment
Language assessment or language testing is a field of study under the umbrella of applied linguistics. Its main focus is the assessment of first, second or other language in the school, college, or university context; assessment of language use in the workplace; and assessment of language in the immigration, citizenship, and asylum contexts.[1] The assessment may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, an integration of two or more of these skills, or other constructs of language ability
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Language Development
Language development is a process starting early in human life. Infants start without knowing a language, yet by 10 months, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling. Some research has shown that the earliest learning begins in utero when the fetus starts to recognize the sounds and speech patterns of its mother's voice and differentiate them from other sounds after birth.[1] Typically, children develop receptive language abilities before their verbal or expressive language develops[2]. Receptive language
Receptive language
is the internal processing and understanding of language. As receptive language continues to increase, expressive language begins to slowly develop. Usually, productive language is considered to begin with a stage of pre-verbal communication in which infants use gestures and vocalizations to make their intents known to others
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Language Education
Language
Language
education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language
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