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Morphophonology
MORPHOPHONOLOGY (also MORPHOPHONEMICS or MORPHONOLOGY) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes. Its chief focus is the sound changes that take place in morphemes (minimal meaningful units) when they combine to form words. Morphophonological analysis often involves an attempt to give a series of formal rules that successfully predict the regular sound changes occurring in the morphemes of a given language. Such a series of rules converts a theoretical underlying representation into a surface form that is actually heard. The units of which the underlying representations of morphemes are composed are sometimes called MORPHOPHONEMES. The surface form produced by the morphophonological rules may consist of phonemes (which are then subject to ordinary phonological rules to produce speech sounds or phones ), or else the morphophonological analysis may bypass the phoneme stage and produce the phones itself
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Second-language Acquisition
SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA), SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING, or L2 (LANGUAGE 2) ACQUISITION, is the process by which people learn a second language . Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics , but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education . A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage , the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This interlanguage gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language
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Origin Of Language
The ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. There is no consensus on the origin or age of human language. The topic is difficult to study because of the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record , archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition , and comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals (particularly other primates ). Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior , but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection. This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study
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Phone (phonetics)
In phonetics and linguistics , a PHONE is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound that, in a given language, if it were swapped with another phoneme, would change the meaning of the word. Phones are absolute, not specific to any language, but phonemes can be discussed only in reference to specific languages. For example, the English words kid and kit end with two distinct phonemes, and swapping one for the other would change the word's meaning. However, the difference between the P sounds in pun (Pʰ, with aspiration ) and spun (P, no aspiration) never affects the meaning of a word in English so they are phones and not phonemes. By contrast, swapping the same two sounds in Hindi
Hindi
or Urdu
Urdu
can change one word into another: pʰal means 'fruit', and pal means 'moment' (CIIL 2008 )
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Semiotics
SEMIOTICS (from Greek : σημειωτικός, "simiotikos") (also called SEMIOTIC STUDIES; not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called SEMIOLOGY which is a subset of semiotics) is the study of meaning-making , the study of sign processes and meaningful communication. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis ), indication, designation, likeness, analogy , allegory , metonymy , metaphor , symbolism , signification , and communication. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems . Semiotics
Semiotics
is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication. Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however
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Cherology
CHEROLOGY and CHEREME (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: χείρ "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages . A chereme, as the basic unit of signed communication, is functionally and psychologically equivalent to the phonemes of oral languages, and has been replaced by that term in the academic literature. Cherology, as the study of cheremes in language, is thus equivalent to phonology. The terms are not in use anymore. Instead, the terms phonology and phoneme (or distinctive feature) are used to stress the linguistic similarities between signed and spoken languages. The terms were coined in 1960 by William Stokoe
William Stokoe
at Gallaudet University to describe sign languages as true and full languages. Once a controversial idea, the position is now universally accepted in linguistics. Stokoe's terminology, however, has been largely abandoned
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Underlying Representation
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics , the UNDERLYING REPRESENTATION (UR) or UNDERLYING FORM (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it. By contrast, a SURFACE REPRESENTATION is the phonetic representation of the word or sound. The concept of an underlying representation is central to generative grammar . If more phonological rules apply to the same underlying form, they can apply wholly independently of each other or in a feeding or counterbleeding order . The underlying representation of a morpheme is considered to be invariable across related forms (except in cases of suppletion ), despite alternations among various allophones on the surface. EXAMPLESIn many cases, the underlying form is simply the phonemic form
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Constraint-based Grammar
CONSTRAINT-BASED GRAMMARS can perhaps be best understood in contrast to generative grammars . A generative grammar lists all the transformations, merges, movements, and deletions that can result in all well-formed sentences, while constraint-based grammars, take the opposite approach, allowing anything that is not otherwise constrained. "The grammar is nothing but a set of constraints that structures are required to satisfy in order to be considered well-formed." "A constraint-based grammar is more like a data base or a knowledge representation system than it is like a collection of algorithms." Examples of such grammars include * the non-procedural variant of Transformational Grammar of Lakoff, that formulates constraints on potential tree sequences, * Johnson and Postal’s formalization of Relational Grammar (1980), GPSG in the variants developed by Gazdar et al. (1988), Blackburn et al
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Language Assessment
LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT or LANGUAGE TESTING is a field of study under the umbrella of applied linguistics . Its main focus is the assessment of first , second or other language in the school, college, or university context; assessment of language use in the workplace; and assessment of language in the immigration, citizenship, and asylum contexts. The assessment may include listening, speaking, reading, writing , an integration of two or more of these skills, or other constructs of language ability. Equal weight may be placed on knowledge (understanding how the language works theoretically) and proficiency (ability to use the language practically), or greater weight may be given to one aspect or the other. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Organizations * 3 Annual conferences * 4 Publications * 5 Courses * 6 Se also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY The examples and perspective in this article MAY NOT REPRESENT A WORLDWIDE VIEW OF THE SUBJECT
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Language Development
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT is a process starting early in human life. Infants start without language, yet by 10 months, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling . Some research has shown that the earliest learning begins in utero when the fetus starts to recognize the sounds and speech patterns of its mother\'s voice and differentiate them from other sounds after birth. Usually, productive language is considered to begin with a stage of preverbal communication in which infants use gestures and vocalizations to make their intents known to others
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Language Acquisition
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language , as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language
Language
acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language . Language
Language
acquisition usually refers to FIRST-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language . This is distinguished from second-language acquisition , which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages. The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology , morphology , syntax , semantics , and an extensive vocabulary . Language
Language
can be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign . Human language capacity is represented in the brain
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Language Education
LANGUAGE EDUCATION refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language. It primarily is a branch of applied linguistics , however can be considered an interdisciplinary field. There are four main learning categories for language education: communicative competencies, proficiencies, cross-cultural experiences , and multiple literacies
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Internet Linguistics
INTERNET LINGUISTICS is a domain of linguistics advocated by the English linguist David Crystal . It studies new language styles and forms that have arisen under the influence of the Internet
Internet
and other new media , such as Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging . Since the beginning of human-computer interaction (HCI) leading to computer-mediated communication (CMC) and Internet-mediated communication (IMC), experts have acknowledged that linguistics has a contributing role in it, in terms of web interface and usability. Studying the emerging language on the Internet
Internet
can help improve conceptual organization, translation and web usability. This study is intended to benefit both linguists and web users. The study of Internet
Internet
linguistics can be effectively done through four main perspectives: sociolinguistics , education , stylistics and applied
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Contrastive Linguistics
CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS is a practice-oriented linguistic approach that seeks to describe the differences and similarities between a pair of languages (hence it is occasionally called "differential linguistics"). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References HISTORYWhile traditional linguistic studies had developed comparative methods (comparative linguistics ), chiefly to demonstrate family relations between cognate languages, or to illustrate the historical developments of one or more languages, modern contrastive linguistics intends to show in what ways the two respective languages differ, in order to help in the solution of practical problems
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Evolutionary Linguistics
EVOLUTIONARY LINGUISTICS is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals . The main challenge in this research is the lack of empirical data: spoken language leaves practically no traces. This led to the abandonment of the field for more than a century, despite the common origins of language hinted at by the evolutionary relationships among individual languages established by the field of historical linguistics . Since the late 1980s, the field has been revived in the wake of progress made in the related fields of Biolinguistics , psycholinguistics , neurolinguistics , evolutionary anthropology , evolutionary psychology , universal grammar , and cognitive science
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Forensic Linguistics
FORENSIC LINGUISTICS, LEGAL LINGUISTICS, or LANGUAGE AND THE LAW, is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure. It is a branch of applied linguistics . There are principally three areas of application for linguists working in forensic contexts: * understanding language of the written law, * understanding language use in forensic and judicial processes, and * the provision of linguistic evidence.The discipline of forensic linguistics is not homogenous; it involves a range of experts and researchers in different areas of the field
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