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Moral Economy
The concept of a MORAL ECONOMY was an elaboration by English historian E.P. Thompson
E.P. Thompson
of a term already used by various eighteenth century authors, who felt that economic and moral concerns increasingly seemed to drift apart (see Götz 2015 ). Thompson wrote of the moral economy of the poor in the context of widespread food riots in the English countryside in the late eighteenth century. According to Thompson these riots were generally peaceable acts that demonstrated a common political culture rooted in feudal rights to “set the price” of essential goods in the market. These peasants held that a traditional “fair price” was more important to the community than a “free” market price and they punished large farmers who sold their surpluses at higher prices outside the village while there were still those in need within the village
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Anthropological Theories Of Value
ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORIES OF VALUE attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists . They are often broader in scope than the theories of value of Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, David Ricardo
David Ricardo
, John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
, Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, etc. usually including sociological , political , institutional, and historical perspectives (transdisciplinarity ). Some have influenced feminist economics . The basic premise is that economic activities can only be fully understood in the context of the society that creates them. The concept of "value" is a social construct , and as such is defined by the culture using the concept. Yet we can gain some insights into modern patterns of exchange, value, and wealth by examining previous societies
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Hunter-gatherer
A HUNTER-GATHERER is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting
Hunting
and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Following the invention of agriculture , hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture and/or keeping animals
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State Formation
STATE FORMATION is the process of the development of a centralized government structure in a situation where one did not exist prior to its development. State formation
State formation
has been a study of many disciplines of the social sciences for a number of years, so much so that Jonathan Haas writes that "One of the favorite pastimes of social scientists over the course of the past century has been to theorize about the evolution of the world's great civilizations." The study of state formation is divided generally into either the study of early states (those that developed in stateless societies ) or the study of modern states (particularly of the form that developed in Europe in the 17th century and spread around the world). Academic debate about various theories is a prominent feature in fields like Anthropology, Sociology, Economics and Political Science
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Social Capital
SOCIAL CAPITAL is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central, transactions are marked by reciprocity , trust , and cooperation , and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good . The term generally refers to (a) resources, and the value of these resources, both tangible (public spaces, private property) and intangible ("actors", "human capital", people), (b) the relationships among these resources, and (c) the impact that these relationships have on the resources involved in each relationship, and on larger groups. It is generally seen as a form of capital that produces public goods for a common good. Social capital
Social capital
has been used to explain the improved performance of diverse groups, the growth of entrepreneurial firms, superior managerial performance, enhanced supply chain relations, the value derived from strategic alliances, and the evolution of communities
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Cultural Capital
In sociology, CULTURAL CAPITAL consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society. Cultural capital functions as a social-relation within an economy of practices (system of exchange), and comprises all of the material and symbolic goods, without distinction , that society considers rare and worth seeking. As a social relation within a system of exchange, cultural capital includes the accumulated cultural knowledge that confer social status and power
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David Graeber
DAVID ROLFE GRAEBER (/ˈɡreɪbər/ ; born 12 February 1961) is an American-born, London-based anthropologist and anarchist activist, perhaps best known for his 2011 volume Debt: The First 5000 Years . He is Professor of Anthropology at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
. As an assistant professor and associate professor of anthropology at Yale from 1998–2007, he specialised in theories of value and social theory . The university's decision not to rehire him when he would otherwise have become eligible for tenure sparked an academic controversy, and a petition with more than 5500 signatures. He went on to become, from 2007–13, Reader in Social Anthropology at Goldsmiths, University of London . His activism includes protests against the 3rd Summit of the Americas in Quebec City
Quebec City
in 2001, and the 2002 World Economic Forum in New York City
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Europe And The People Without History
EUROPE AND THE PEOPLE WITHOUT HISTORY is a book by anthropologist Eric Wolf . First published in 1982, it focuses on the expansion of European societies in the Modern Era . "Europe and the people without history" is history written on a global scale, tracing the connections between communities, regions, peoples and nations that are usually treated as discrete subjects. A GLOBAL HISTORYThe book begins in 1400 with a description of the trade routes a world traveller might have encountered, the people and societies they connected, and the civilizational processes trying to incorporate them. From this, Wolf traces the emergence of Europe as a global power, and the reorganization of particular world regions for the production of goods now meant for global consumption. Wolf differs from World Systems theory in that he sees the growth of Europe until the late eighteenth century operating in a tributory framework, and not capitalism
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Commodification
COMMODIFICATION is the transformation of goods , services , ideas and people into commodities , or objects of trade. A commodity at its most basic, according to Arjun Appadurai , is "any thing intended for exchange," or any object of economic value . People are commodified—turned into objects—when working, by selling their labour on the market to an employer. One of its forms is slavery . Others are, the trading with animals and body parts through formalised or informalised organ transplant . Commodification is often criticised on the grounds that some things ought not to be treated as commodities—for example education , data, information and knowledge in the digital age
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Aché People
The ACHé (/ɑːˈtʃeɪ/ ah-CHAY ) are an indigenous people of Paraguay
Paraguay
. They are hunter-gatherers living in eastern Paraguay
Paraguay
. From the earliest Jesuit accounts of the Aché in the 17th century until their peaceful outside contacts in the 20th century, the Aché were described as nomadic hunter-gatherers living in small bands and depending entirely on wild forest resources for subsistence. In the 20th century, four different ethnolinguistic populations of Aché were contacted and pacified. They are the Northern Aché, the Yvytyruzu Aché, the Ypety Aché, and the Ñacunday Aché. Each of these populations was an endogamous dialectal group, consisting of multiple residential bands, with no peaceful interaction between the groups
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Marvin Harris
MARVIN HARRIS (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist . He was born in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York City
New York City
. A prolific writer, he was highly influential in the development of cultural materialism . In his work, he combined Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's emphasis on the forces of production with Thomas Malthus 's insights on the impact of demographic factors on other parts of the sociocultural system . Labeling demographic and production factors as infrastructure , Harris posited these factors as key in determining a society's social structure and culture . After the publication of The Rise of Anthropological Theory in 1968, Harris helped focus the interest of anthropologists in cultural-ecological relationships for the rest of his career. Many of his publications gained wide circulation among lay readers
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Debt
DEBT is money owed by one party, the borrower or debtor , for a second party, the lender or creditor . The borrower may be a sovereign state or country, local government , company , or an individual. The lender may be a bank , credit card company, payday loan provider, or an individual. Debt
Debt
is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest . A simple way to understand interest is to see it as the "rent" a person owes on money that they have borrowed, to the bank from which they borrowed the money. Loans , bonds , notes, and mortgages are all types of debt. The term can also be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value . For example, in Western cultures, a person who has been helped by a second person is sometimes said to owe a "debt of gratitude" to the second person
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Culture Of Poverty
The CULTURE OF POVERTY is a concept in social theory that expands on the idea of a cycle of poverty . It attracted academic and policy attention in the 1970s, survived harsh academic criticism (Goode and Eames, 1996; Bourgois, 2001; Small M.L., Harding D.J., Lamont M., 2010), and made a comeback at the beginning of the 21st century. It offers one way to explain why poverty exists despite anti-poverty programs. Critics of the early culture of poverty arguments insist that explanations of poverty must analyze how structural factors interact with and condition individual characteristics (Goode and Eames, 1996; Bourgois, 2001; Small M.L., Harding D.J., Lamont M., 2010)
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The Great Transformation (book)
THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION is a book by Karl Polanyi , a Hungarian-American political economist . First published in 1944 by Farrar "> SUPPORTThe sociologists Fred L. Block and Margaret Somers argue that Karl Polanyi's analysis could help explain why the resurgence of free market ideas have resulted in "such manifest failures as persistent unemployment, widening inequality, and the severe financial crises that have stressed Western economies over the past forty years." They suggest that "the ideology that free markets can replace government is just as utopian and dangerous" as the idea that Communism will result in the withering away of the state. In Towards an Anthropological Theory of Value: The False Coin of Our Own Dreams, anthropologist David Graeber
David Graeber
offers compliments to Polanyi's text and theories
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The Formalist Vs Substantivist Debate
The opposition between substantivist and formalist economic models was first proposed by Karl Polanyi in his work The Great Transformation (1944). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 The formalist position * 3 The substantivist position * 4 Course of the debate * 5 References OVERVIEWPolanyi argued that the term 'economics' has two meanings: the formal meaning refers to economics as the logic of rational action and decision-making, as rational choice between the alternative uses of limited (scarce) means. The second, substantive meaning, however, presupposes neither rational decision-making nor conditions of scarcity. It simply refers to the study of how humans make a living from their social and natural environment. A society's livelihood strategy is seen as an adaptation to its environment and material conditions, a process which may or may not involve utility maximisation. The substantive meaning of 'economics' is seen in the broader sense of provisioning'
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Jim Crow Economy
The term JIM CROW ECONOMY applies to a specific set of economic conditions during the period when the Jim Crow laws were in effect; however, it should also be taken as an attempt to disentangle the economic ramifications from the politico-legal ramifications of "separate but equal " de jure segregation, to consider how the economic impacts might have persisted beyond the politico-legal ramifications. It includes the intentional effects of the laws themselves, effects that were not explicitly written into laws, and effects that continued after the laws had been repealed. Some of these impacts continue into the present. The primary differences of the Jim Crow economy, compared to a situation like apartheid , revolve around the alleged equality of access, especially in regard to land ownership and entry into the competitive labor market; however, those two categories often relate to ancillary effects in all other aspects of life
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