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Montbretia
Crocosmia
Crocosmia
(/krəˈkɒzmiə, kroʊ-/;[2][3] J. E. Planchon, 1851)[4] (montbretia)[5] is a small genus of flowering plants in the iris family, Iridaceae. It is native to the grasslands of southern and eastern Africa, ranging from South Africa
Africa
to Sudan. One species is endemic to Madagascar.[1] They can be evergreen or deciduous perennials that grow from basal underground corms. The alternate leaves are cauline and ensiform (sword shaped). The blades are parallel-veined. The margin is entire. The corms are unusual in forming vertical chains with the youngest at the top and oldest and largest buried most deeply in the soil.[citation needed] The roots of the lowermost corm in a chain are contractile roots and drag the corm deeper into the ground where conditions allow
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Peter Goldblatt
Peter Goldblatt (born 1943) is a South African botanist, working principally in the United States.Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 Selected publications 4 Legacy 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksLife[edit] Goldblatt was born in Johannesburg, South Africa on October 8, 1943. His undergraduate studies (B.Sc.) were undertaken at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesberg (1965–1966), from where he went on to graduate studies at the University of Cape Town, where he received his doctorate in 1970. He held a position as lecturer in botany at Witwatersrand (1967) and then Cape Town (1968–1971) before emigrating to the United States in 1972. In the US he took up a position as a researcher at the Missouri Botanical Gardens, in St. Louis, where he has remained since, holding the position of Senior Curator since 1990. He returned briefly to South Africa in 2006 as a researcher at the Compton Herbarium, South African National Biodiversity Institute, in Cape Town
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Pollination
Pollination
Pollination
is an agent’s transferring pollen from a gymnosperm’s sporophyll to an ovule’s micropyle or an agent’s transferring pollen from an angiosperm’s anther to a carpel’s stigma [2]. Pollinating agents are animals, water, and wind and even plants themselves when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination
Pollination
often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant-breeding work. Pollination
Pollination
is a major obligate process in seed production. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary
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Perennial Plant
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.[1] The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials.[2] Perennials, especially small flowering plants, that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant that is a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions
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Leaf Shape
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets). The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leaf article.Chart illustrating leaf morphology termsContents1 Leaf
Leaf
structure 2 Leaf
Leaf
and leaflet shapes 3 Edge 4 Leaf
Leaf
folding 5 Latin descriptions 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links Leaf
Leaf
structure[edit]A ternate compound leaf with a petiole but no rachis (or rachillae)Leaves of most plants include a flat structure called the blade or lamina, but not all leaves are flat, some are cylindrical
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Inflorescence
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Cyme (botany)
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Raceme
A raceme (/reɪˈsiːm/ or /rəˈsiːm/) is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.[1] In botany, an axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In indeterminate inflorescence-like racemes, the oldest flowers are borne towards the base and new flowers are produced as the shoot grows, with no predetermined growth limit.[2] A plant that flowers on a showy raceme may have this reflected in its scientific name, e.g. Cimicifuga racemosa
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Spike (botany)
A raceme (/reɪˈsiːm/ or /rəˈsiːm/) is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.[1] In botany, an axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In indeterminate inflorescence-like racemes, the oldest flowers are borne towards the base and new flowers are produced as the shoot grows, with no predetermined growth limit.[2] A plant that flowers on a showy raceme may have this reflected in its scientific name, e.g. Cimicifuga racemosa
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Hermaphrodite
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.[1] Many taxonomic groups of animals (mostly invertebrates) do not have separate sexes.[2] In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which either partner can act as the "female" or "male". For example, the great majority of tunicates, pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are also hermaphrodites. Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings
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Stamen
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium.[1]Contents1 Morphology and terminology 2 Etymology 3 Variation in morphology 4 Pollen
Pollen
production 5 Sexual reproduction in plants 6 Descriptive terms 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksMorphology and terminology[edit] A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and an anther which contains microsporangia. Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the connective. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte. The stamens in a flower are collectively called the androecium. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Carpel
Gynoecium
Gynoecium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of (one or more) pistils in a flower and is typically surrounded by the pollen-producing reproductive organs, the stamens, collectively called the androecium. The gynoecium is often referred to as the "female" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female gametes (i.e. egg cells), the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which then produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a gametophyte shoot in mosses, liverworts and hornworts
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Capsule (fruit)
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry rarely fleshy, dehiscent fruit produced by many species of Angiosperms (flowering plants).[1][2]Contents1 Origins and structure 2 Dehiscence 3 Specialised capsules 4 Nuts 5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyOrigins and structure[edit] The capsule (Latin: capsula, small box) is derived from a compound (multicarpeled) ovary.[2] A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels. In (flowering plants), the term locule (or cell) is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit. Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as uni-locular (unilocular), bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular. The number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules contain the ovules or seeds and are separated by septa. Dehiscence[edit] Main article: Dehiscence (botany) In most cases the capsule is dehiscent, i.e
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Saffron
Saffron
Saffron
(pronounced /ˈsæfrən/ or /ˈsæfrɒn/)[1] is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus". The vivid crimson stigmas and styles, called threads, are collected and dried to be used mainly as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron, long among the world's most costly spices by weight,[2][3][4] was probably first cultivated in or near Greece.[5] C. sativus is probably a form of C. cartwrightianus, that emerged by human cultivators selectively breeding plants for unusually long stigmas in late Bronze Age Crete.[6] It slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia
Eurasia
and was later brought to parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania. Saffron's taste and iodoform or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[7][8] It also contains a carotenoid pigment, crocin, which imparts a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles
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Crocus
Crocus
Crocus
(English plural: crocuses or croci) is a genus of flowering plants in the iris family comprising 90 species of perennials growing from corms. Many are cultivated for their flowers appearing in autumn, winter, or spring. The spice saffron is obtained from the stigmas of Crocus
Crocus
sativus, an autumn-blooming species
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