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Monsanto Company
Monsanto
Monsanto
Company is a publicly traded American multinational agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation. It is headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri
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Monsanto (other)
Monsanto is a US corporation. Monsanto may also refer to:March Against Monsanto movement The World According to Monsanto film Monsanto process Monsanto, California, a community in the United States Monsanto Insectarium, insectarium in St. Louis Zoo Monsanto (Idanha-a-Nova), Portuguese Freguesia Circuito de Monsanto, race track near Lisbon, Portugal Monsanto Forest Park, in Lisbon, Portugal Castelo de Monsanto, a castle in Portugal G.D.R
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Insecticide
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.[1] They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th-century's agricultural productivity.[2] Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans and/or animals; some become concentrated as they spread along the food chain. Insecticides can be classified into two major groups: systemic insecticides, which have residual or long term activity; and contact insecticides, which have no residual activity. Furthermore, one can distinguish three types of insecticide. 1. Natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum and neem extracts, made by plants as defenses against insects. 2. Inorganic insecticides, which are metals. 3
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List Of Business Entities
A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per corporate law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service. There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations, cooperatives, partnerships, sole traders, limited liability company and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province
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Missouri
Missouri
Missouri
is a state in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States.[5] With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are Kansas
Kansas
City, St. Louis, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City, located on the Missouri River. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms the eastern border of the state. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri
Missouri
for at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage and Missouria
Missouria
nations
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Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA
DNA
is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA
DNA
methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA
DNA
molecule was made by Paul Berg
Paul Berg
in 1972 by combining DNA
DNA
from the monkey virus SV40
SV40
with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes
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Catalysis
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Asymmetric Hydrogenation
Asymmetric hydrogenation
Asymmetric hydrogenation
is a chemical reaction that adds two atoms of hydrogen preferentially to one of two faces of an unsaturated substrate molecule, such as an alkene or ketone. The selectivity derives from the manner that the substrate binds to the chiral catalysts. In jargon, this binding transmits spatial information (what chemists refer to as chirality) from the catalyst to the target, favoring the product as a single enantiomer
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Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified crops
Genetically modified crops
(GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA
DNA
of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, or environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, or resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation.[1] Farmers have widely adopted GM technology
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Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).[1] Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.[2] The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky
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Biological Patent
A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time. The scope and reach of biological patents vary among jurisdictions,[1] and may include biological technology and products, genetically modified organisms and genetic material
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DDT
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal action was discovered by the Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller
Paul Hermann Müller
in 1939. DDT
DDT
was used in the second half of World War II
World War II
to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT
DDT
as a contact poison against several arthropods" in 1948.[5] By October 1945, DDT
DDT
was available for public sale in the United States
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Multinational Corporation
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise[5] is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.[6] A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE), a transnational enterprise (TNE), a transnational corporation (TNC), an international corporation, or a stateless corporation.[7] There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards, and that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, and even the military backing of their own wealthy host nation-states.Contents1 Overview 2 Theoretical background 3 Transnational corporations 4 Multinational enterprise 5
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Recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA
DNA
(rDNA) molecules are DNA
DNA
molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA
DNA
in a living organism was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer, of the University of California
University of California
at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli
E. coli
restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA
DNA
into plasmids.[1] Recombinant DNA
DNA
is the general name for a piece of DNA
DNA
that has been created by the combination of at least two strands
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Bovine Somatotropin
Bovine somatotropin
Bovine somatotropin
or bovine somatotrophin (abbreviated bST and BST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a peptide hormone produced by cows' pituitary glands.[1] Like other hormones, it is produced in small quantities and is used in regulating metabolic processes.[1] After the biotech company Genentech
Genentech
discovered and patented the gene for BST in the 1970s,[2] it became possible to synthesize the hormone using recombinant DNA technology to create recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST), recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH), or artificial growth hormone. Four large pharmaceutical companies, Monsanto, American Cyanamid, Eli Lilly, and Upjohn, developed commercial rBST products and submitted them to the US Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) for approval.[3][4] Monsanto
Monsanto
was the first firm to receive approval
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Biopiracy
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources
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