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Monk
A MONK (/mʌŋk/ , from Greek : μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" and Latin
Latin
monachus ) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decided to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language
Greek language
the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics. Although the term monachos is of Christian
Christian
origin, in the English language "monk" tends to be used loosely also for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds
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Volga River
The VOLGA (Russian : Во́лга; IPA: ( listen )) is the longest river in Europe
Europe
. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed . The river flows through central Russia
Russia
and into the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, and is widely regarded as the national river of Russia
Russia
. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia
Russia
, including the capital, Moscow
Moscow
, are located in the Volga's watershed. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture
Russian culture
and is often referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka (Mother Volga) in Russian literature and folklore
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Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
NIZHNY NOVGOROD OBLAST (Russian : Нижегоро́дская о́бласть, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), also known in English as NIZHEGOROD OBLAST, is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(an oblast ). Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
. Population: 3,310,597 (2010 Census ). From 1932 to 1990 it was known as GORKY OBLAST. The oblast is crossed by the Volga River
Volga River
. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area (including Dzerzhinsk , Bor and Kstovo
Kstovo
) the biggest city is Arzamas . Near the town of Sarov
Sarov
there is the Serafimo-Diveyevsky Monastery , one of the largest convents in Russia, established by Saint Seraphim of Sarov
Sarov
. The Makaryev Monastery opposite of the town of Lyskovo used to be the location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe
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Makaryev Monastery
Coordinates : 56°04′57″N 45°03′50″E / 56.08250°N 45.06389°E / 56.08250; 45.06389 General view One of the towers of the Makaryev Monastery
Monastery
ZHELTOVODSKY MAKARYEV CONVENT (formerly MONASTERY) OF THE HOLY TRINITY (Russian : Желтово́дский Тро́ицкий Мака́рьев монасты́рь or Свя́то-Тро́ице-Мака́рьево-Желтово́дский же́нский монасты́рь) is one of the convents of Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
. It is located in the vicinity of the urban-type settlement of Makaryevo in Lyskovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
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Religious Orders
A RELIGIOUS ORDER is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice. The order is composed of initiates (laity ) and, in some traditions, ordained clergy . Religious orders exist in many of the world's religions
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Dionysiou Monastery
DIONYSIOU MONASTERY (Greek : Μονή Διονυσίου) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
in Greece
Greece
in southwest part of Athos peninsula. The monastery ranks fifth in the hierarchy of the Athonite monasteries. It is one of the twenty self-governing monasteries in Athos, and it was dedicated to John the Baptist . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Manuscripts * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Dionysiou monastery as seen from a nearby cliff Dionysiou monastery The monastery was founded in the 14th century by Saint Denys de Korisos, and it was named after him. The architect decided to build the monastery in Byzantinian style. By the end of the 15h century according to the Russian pilgrim Isaiah, the monastery was Serb. The library of the monastery housed 804 manuscripts, and more than 4,000 printed books
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Theosis (Eastern Orthodox Theology)
THEOSIS or deification is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God
God
, as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
. As a process of transformation, theosis is brought about by the effects of catharsis (purification of mind and body) and theoria ('illumination' with the 'vision' of God). According to Eastern Christian teaching, theosis is very much the purpose of human life. It is considered achievable only through a synergy (or cooperation) between human activity and God's uncreated energies (or operations)
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Katholikon
A KATHOLIKON or CATHOLICON (Greek : καθολικόν) or SOBOR (Slavonic : съборъ) refers to one of three things in the Eastern Orthodox Church : * The cathedral of a diocese . * The major church building (temple) of a monastery corresponding to a conventual church in Western Christianity
Western Christianity
. * A large church in a city at which all the faithful of the city gather to celebrate certain important feasts rather than go to their local parish church. The name derives from the fact that it is (usually) the largest church where all gather together to celebrate the major feast days of the liturgical year . In Russia, it is common for a katholikon to have a smaller church in the basement which can be more easily heated in the winter
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Vows
A VOW (Lat. votum, vow, promise; see vote ) is a promise or oath . CONTENTS * 1 Marriage vows * 2 Divine vows * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links MARRIAGE VOWS Main article: Marriage vows Marriage vows are binding promises each partner in a couple makes to the other during a wedding ceremony . Marriage customs have developed over history and keep changing as human society develops. In earlier times and in most cultures the consent of the partners has not had the importance now attached to it, at least in Western societies and in those they have influenced. DIVINE VOWSWithin the world of monks and nuns, a vow is sometimes a transaction between a person and a deity , where the former promises to render some service or gift, or devotes something valuable to the deity's use. The vow is a kind of oath , with the deity being both the witness and recipient of the promise
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Church Slavonic Language
CHURCH SLAVONIC, also known as CHURCH SLAVIC or NEW CHURCH SLAVONIC, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria , Poland , the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Slovakia
, Russia , Serbia , Montenegro , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine . The language also occasionally appears in the services of the Orthodox Church in America . It was also used by the Orthodox Churches in Romanian lands until the late 17th and early 18th centuries, as well as by Roman Catholic Croatians in the early Middle Ages. In addition, Church Slavonic is used by some churches which consider themselves Orthodox but are not in communion with the Orthodox Church, such as the Macedonian Orthodox Church
Macedonian Orthodox Church
, the Montenegrin Orthodox Church , the Russian True Orthodox Church and others
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Old Testament
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e Part of a seri
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Nazarite
In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, a NAZIRITE or NAZARITE is one who voluntarily took a vow described in Numbers 6:1–21. "Nazarite" comes from the Hebrew word נזיר nazir meaning "consecrated" or "separated". This vow required the person to: * Abstain from wine, wine vinegar, grapes, raisins, intoxicating liquors, vinegar made from such substances, and eating or drinking any substance that contains any trace of grapes. * Refrain from cutting the hair on one's head; but to allow the locks of the head's hair to grow. * Not to become ritually impure by contact with corpses or graves, even those of family members
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Starets
A STARETS (Russian : стáрец, IPA: ; fem. стáрица) is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher. Elders or spiritual fathers are charismatic spiritual leaders whose wisdom stems from God as obtained from ascetic experience. It is believed that through ascetic struggle , prayer and Hesychasm
Hesychasm
(seclusion or withdrawal), the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
bestows special gifts onto the elder including the ability to heal , prophesy , and most importantly, give effective spiritual guidance and direction. Elders are looked upon as being an inspiration to believers and an example of saintly virtue, steadfast faith, and spiritual peace. Elders are not appointed by any authority; they are simply recognized by the faithful as being people "of the Spirit"
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Skete
A SKETE (from Coptic ϣⲓ(ϩ)ⲏⲧ via Gk. σκήτη), is a monastic community in Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
that allows relative isolation for monks, but also allows for communal services and the safety of shared resources and protection. It is one of four early monastic orders, along with the eremitic , lavritic and coenobitic , that became popular during the early formation of the Christian Church . Skete
Skete
communities usually consist of a number of small cells or caves that act as the living quarters with a centralized church or chapel. These communities are thought of as a bridge between strict hermetic lifestyle and communal lifestyles since it was a blend of the two. These communities were a direct response to the ascetic lifestyle that early Christians aspired to live. Skete
Skete
communities were often a bridge to a stricter form of hermitage or to martyrdom
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Hesychasm
HESYCHASM is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
. Based on Christ
Christ
's injunction in the Gospel of Matthew that "when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray", hesychasm in tradition has been the process of retiring inward by ceasing to register the senses, in order to achieve an experiential knowledge of God (see theoria )
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