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Mongol Raids
The Mongol
Mongol
military tactics and organization enabled the Mongol
Mongol
Empire to conquer nearly all of continental Asia, the Middle East and parts of eastern Europe. The original foundation of that system was an extension of the nomadic lifestyle of the Mongols. Other elements were invented by Genghis Khan, his generals, and his successors. Technologies useful to attack fortifications were adapted from other cultures, and foreign technical experts integrated into the command structures. In many cases, they won against significantly larger opposing armies.Military Title Number of MenArban Ten(s)Zuun HundredsMingghan ThousandsTumen Tens of ThousandsTransfers between units were forbidden. The leaders on each level had significant license to execute their orders in the way they considered best
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Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia
/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. Mongolia
Mongolia
does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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Jami Al-Tawarikh
The Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, (Arabic: جامع التواريخ‎ Compendium of Chronicles, Mongolian: Судрын чуулган, Persian: جامع‌التواریخ‎) is a work of literature and history, produced in the Mongol Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in Persia.[1] Written by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
(1247–1318) at the start of the 14th century, the breadth of coverage of the work has caused it to be called "the first world history".[2] It was in three volumes. The surviving portions total approximately 400 pages, with versions in Persian and Arabic
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Mongolian Cuisine
Mongolian cuisine
Mongolian cuisine
primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. The most common rural dish is cooked mutton. In the city, steamed dumplings filled with meat- "buuz" are popular. The extreme continental climate of Mongolia
Mongolia
has influenced the traditional diet. Use of vegetables and spices are limited
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Borts
Borts (Mongolian: Борц) is air-dried meat cut into long strips which are hung in the shade. The Mongolian nomadic lifestyle and the local climatic conditions gave rise to specific methods of preserving meat. The most widespread one is air-drying or bortsloh. Preparation[edit] The fresh meat is cut into long strips, 2-3 cm thick and 5-7 cm wide. The strips are hung on strings under the roof of a yurt, where the air is free to circulate. After about a month the meat is dry, having turned into small, hard, wooden-like sticks with a brown color. The volume has shrunk so much that the meat of the original cow can now easily fit into the stomach of that same cow.[citation needed] The dried borts is broken into small pieces or ground to a coarse and fibrous powder. It is stored in a linen bag, which allows contact with air
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Syria
Coordinates: 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-SūrīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the HomelandCapital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300Official languages ArabicEthnic groupsSyrian Arabs Arameans Kurds Turkomans Assyrians Circassians ArmeniansReligion 87%
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The Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Mamluk
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Scorched Earth
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location. Any assets that could be used by the enemy may be targeted, for example food sources, water supplies, transportation, communications, industrial resources, and even the locale's people themselves. The practice can be carried out by the military in enemy territory, or in its own home territory
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Great Hungarian Plain
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Hungarian: Alföld, Nagy Alföld)[1][2] is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary
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Silk
Silk
Silk
is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons.[1] The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori
Bombyx mori
reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk
Silk
is produced by several insects, like silk worms but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing
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Metal
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal"[1][2]) is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable—that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire).[3] Around 90 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids, though elements near the boundaries of each category have been assigned variably to either (hence the lack of an exact count). Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. Astrophysicists use the term "metal" to refer collectively to all elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals
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Spear
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, obsidian, iron, steel or bronze. The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge, or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges. The word spear comes from the Old English spere, from the Proto-Germanic speri, from a Proto-Indo-European root *sper- "spear, pole". Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting in melee combat and those designed for throwing (usually referred to as javelins). The spear has been used throughout human history both as a hunting and fishing tool and as a weapon
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Mongolian Armed Forces
The Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongolian: Монгол улсын зэвсэгт хүчин, Mongol ulsyn zevsegt hüchin) is the collective name for the Mongolian army and the joint forces that comprise it. The army is tasked with protecting the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Mongolia. Defined as the peacetime configuration, its current structure consists of two branches: ground forces and air force
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Battle Axe
A battle axe (also battle-axe or battle-ax) is an axe specifically designed for combat. Battle axes were specialized versions of utility axes. Many were suitable for use in one hand, while others were larger and were deployed two-handed. Axes designed for warfare ranged in weight from just over 0.5 to 3 kg (1 to 7 lb), and in length from just over 30 cm (1 ft) to upwards of 1.5 m (5 ft), as in the case of the Danish axe
Danish axe
or the sparth axe
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Henry II The Pious
Servant of God Henry II the Pious
Henry II the Pious
(Polish: Henryk II Pobożny) (1196 – 9 April 1241),[1] of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
was Duke of Silesia
Duke of Silesia
at Wrocław
Wrocław
and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland as well as Duke of Southern Greater Poland from 1238 until his death. During 1238–1239 he also served as a regent of two other Piast duchies: Sandomierz
Sandomierz
and Upper Silesian Opole–Racibórz
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