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Momsen Lung
The Momsen lung
Momsen lung
was a primitive underwater rebreather used before and during World War II
World War II
by American submariners as emergency escape gear. The Momsen lung
Momsen lung
was invented by Charles B. Momsen (nicknamed "Swede").[1] Submariners
Submariners
would train in an 80 ft (24 m) deep Escape Training Tank at New London, Mare Island
Mare Island
[2], or Pearl Harbor using this apparatus. It was first introduced as standard equipment on P- (Porpoise-) and Salmon-class boats.[3] The device recycled the breathing gas by using a counterlung containing soda lime to scrub carbon dioxide
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Rebreather
A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when present, of each breath. Oxygen
Oxygen
is added to replenish the amount metabolised by the user
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Internet Archive
Coordinates: 37°46′56″N 122°28′18″W / 37.7823°N 122.4716°W / 37.7823; -122.4716Internet ArchiveType of business 501(c)(3) nonprofitType of siteDigital libraryAvailable in EnglishFounded May 12, 1996; 21 years ago (1996-05-12)[1][2]Headquarters Richmond District San Francisco, California, U.S.Chairman Brewster KahleServices Archive-It, Open Library, Wayback Machine
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Escape Set
An escape set (in German Tauchretter = "diver rescuer") is a breathing set, which lets its wearer survive for a time in an environment without (sufficiently) breathable air, in particular underwater, primarily or originally intending mainly to survive long enough to reach safety where the air is breathable. Early escape sets were rebreathers and were used to escape from a submarine which was submerged so long that its onboard air supply ran out, and for technical or military reasons the submarine could not surface: one example is the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus. Escape sets were also used ashore, e.g. in the mining industry.Contents1 Naming 2 Function2.1 Chemical 2.2 Use during submarine rescue3 History 4 Further developments of the escape gear 5 See also 6 LiteratureNaming[edit] Currently, language in German as in English, tauchen = "diving" only means in water
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Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment
Submarine
Submarine
Escape Immersion Equipment (SEIE), also known as Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment, is a whole-body suit and one-man life raft, designed by British company RFD Beaufort Limited, that allows submariners to escape from a sunken submarine. The suit provides protection against hypothermia and is rapidly replacing the Steinke hood rescue device. The suit allows survivors to escape a disabled submarine at depths down to 600 feet (183 m), with an ascent speed of 2–3 meters/second, at a rate of eight or more sailors per hour.[1][2] The latest generation RFD Beaufort SEIE MK11 enables free ascent from a stricken submarine and provides extensive protection for the submariner on reaching the surface until rescued. A typical assembly comprises a submarine escape and immersion suit, an inner thermal liner, and a gas-inflated single-seat life raft, all contained in a protective stowage compartment
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Blow And Go
An emergency ascent is an ascent to the surface by a diver in an emergency. More specifically it refers to any of several procedures for reaching the surface in the event of an out-of-air emergency, generally while scuba diving. Emergency ascents may be broadly categorised as independent ascents, where the diver is alone and manages the ascent by him/herself, and dependent ascents, where the diver is assisted by another diver, who generally provides breathing gas, but may also provide transportation or other assistance. The extreme case of a dependent ascent is underwater rescue or recovery of an unconscious or unresponsive diver, but this is more usually referred to as diver rescue, and emergency ascent is usually used for cases where the distressed diver is at least partially able to contribute to the management of the ascent. An emergency ascent usually implies that the diver initiated the ascent voluntarily, and made the choice of the procedure
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Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus
The Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus
Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus
(also referred to as DSEA), was an early type of oxygen rebreather invented in 1910 by Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman and Co. Ltd., inspired by the earlier Fleuss system,[1][2] and adopted by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
after further development by Davis in 1927
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Royal Navy
The Royal Navy
Navy
(RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy
Navy
vied with the Dutch Navy
Navy
and later with the French Navy
Navy
for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy
Navy
during the Second World War
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Steinke Hood
A Steinke hood, named for its inventor, Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Harris Steinke, is a device designed to aid escape from a sunken submarine. In essence, it is an inflatable life jacket with a hood that completely encloses the wearer's head, trapping a bubble of breathing air. It is designed to assist buoyant ascent. An advancement over its predecessor, the Momsen lung, it was standard equipment in all submarines of the United States Navy throughout the Cold War
Cold War
period. The U.S. Navy has replaced Steinke hoods on U.S
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Escape Trunk
An escape trunk is a small compartment on a submarine which provides a means for crew to escape from a downed submarine; it operates on a principle similar to an airlock, in that it allows the transfer of persons or objects between two areas of different pressure.Contents1 Principle of operation 2 Operation 3 DSRV rescue 4 In popular culturePrinciple of operation[edit] The water pressure on the outer hatch is always greater than the air pressure inside the submarine, which prevents opening the hatch. Only when the pressure inside the escape chamber is equal to the sea pressure can the hatch be opened
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Soda Lime
Soda lime
Soda lime
is a mixture of chemicals, used in granular form in closed breathing environments, such as general anaesthesia, submarines, rebreathers and recompression chambers, to remove carbon dioxide from breathing gases to prevent CO2 retention and carbon dioxide poisoning.[1][2] It is made by treating slaked lime with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution.Contents1 Chemical
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Breathing Gas
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration. Air
Air
is the most common, and only natural, breathing gas. But other mixtures of gases, or pure gases, are also used in breathing equipment and enclosed habitats such as scuba equipment, surface supplied diving equipment, recompression chambers, submarines, space suits, spacecraft, medical life support and first aid equipment, high-altitude mountaineering and anaesthetic machines.[1][2][3] Oxygen
Oxygen
is the essential component for any breathing gas, at a partial pressure of between roughly 0.16 and 1.60 bar at the ambient pressure. The oxygen is usually the only metabolically active component unless the gas is an anaesthetic mixture
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