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Molecular Communication
MOLECULAR COMMUNICATIONS systems use the presence or absence of a selected type of molecule to digitally encode messages. The molecules are delivered into communications media such as air and water for transmission. The technique also is not subject to the requirement of using antennas that are sized to a specific ratio of the wavelength of the signal. Molecular communication signals can be made biocompatible and require very little energy NATUREMolecular signaling is used by plants and animals, such as the pheromones that insects use for long-range signaling. ALCOHOLResearchers demonstrated the use of evaporated alcohol molecules to carry messages across several meters of open space and successfully decoded the message on the other side. The presence of molecules encoded to digital 1 and their absence encoded to 0. The hardware cost around $100
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Paul Baran
PAUL BARAN (/ˈbærən/ ; April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks . He was one of the two independent inventors of packet switched computer networking , and went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an essential part of modern digital communication. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Packet switched network design * 2.1 Selling the idea * 3 Later work * 4 Death * 5 Awards and honors * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE Paul Baran
Paul Baran
was born in Grodno
Grodno
(then Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
, now part of Belarus
Belarus
) on April 29, 1926. He was the youngest of three children in a Polish-Jewish family, with the Yiddish
Yiddish
given name "Pesach"
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Timeline Of Communication Technology
TIMELINE OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY CONTENTS * 1 Graphical overview * 2 Pre 21st Century Media Impact * 3 20th century * 4 21st century * 5 See also * 6 References GRAPHICAL OVERVIEWPRE 21ST CENTURY MEDIA IMPACT * 30,000 BC – In ice-age Europe, people mark ivory, bone, and stone with patterns to keep track of time, using a lunar calendar. * 14,000 BC – In what is now Mezhirich, Ukraine, the first known artifact with a map on it is made using bone
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Edwin Howard Armstrong
EDWIN HOWARD ARMSTRONG (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor , best known for developing FM (frequency modulation ) radio. He held 42 patents and received numerous awards, including the first Medal of Honor awarded by the Institute of Radio Engineers (now IEEE), the French Legion of Honor , the 1941 Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
and the 1942 Edison Medal . He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame
National Inventors Hall of Fame
and included in the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
's roster of great inventors
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History Of The Telephone
This HISTORY OF THE TELEPHONE chronicles the development of the electrical telephone , and includes a brief review of its predecessors. CONTENTS* 1 Telephone
Telephone
prehistory * 1.1 Mechanical devices * 1.2 Electrical devices * 2 Invention of the telephone
Invention of the telephone
* 2.1 Invention of the telephone
Invention of the telephone
exchange * 3 Early telephone developments * 4 Early commercial instruments * 5 20th century developments * 6 Women\'s usage in the 20th century * 7 21st century developments * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links TELEPHONE PREHISTORYMECHANICAL DEVICES A 19th century acoustic 'tin can ', or 'lover's' telephone Before the invention of electromagnetic telephones , mechanical acoustic devices existed for transmitting speech and music over a distance greater than that of normal direct speech
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Whistled Language
WHISTLED LANGUAGES use whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication. A whistled language is a system of whistled communication which allows fluent whistlers to transmit and comprehend a potentially unlimited number of messages over long distances. Whistled languages are different in this respect from the restricted codes sometimes used by herders or animal trainers to transmit simple messages or instructions. Generally, whistled languages emulate the tones or vowel formants of a natural spoken language, as well as aspects of its intonation and prosody , so that trained listeners who speak that language can understand the encoded message. Whistled language is rare compared to spoken language, but it is found in cultures around the world. It is especially common in tone languages where the whistled tones transmit the tones of the syllables (tone melodies of the words)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Biocompatibility
BIOCOMPATIBILITY is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various contexts. The term refers to the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific situation. The ambiguity of the term reflects the ongoing development of insights into how biomaterials interact with the human body and eventually how those interactions determine the clinical success of a medical device (such as pacemaker , hip replacement or stent ). Modern medical devices and prostheses are often made of more than one material so it might not always be sufficient to talk about the biocompatibility of a specific material. Since the immune response and repair functions in the body are so complicated it is not adequate to describe the biocompatibility of a single material in relation to a single cell type or tissue
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Digital Data
DIGITAL DATA, in information theory and information systems , are discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works, as contrasted with continuous, or analog signals which behave in a continuous manner, or represent information using a continuous function . Although digital representations are the subject matter of discrete mathematics , the information represented can be either discrete, such as numbers and letters , or it can be continuous, such as sounds, images, and other measurements. The word digital comes from the same source as the words digit and digitus (the Latin
Latin
word for finger ), as fingers are often used for discrete counting. Mathematician George Stibitz of Bell Telephone Laboratories used the word digital in reference to the fast electric pulses emitted by a device designed to aim and fire anti-aircraft guns in 1942
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Pheromones
A PHEROMONE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone , from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species . Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individuals. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones , and many others that affect behavior or physiology. Pheromones are used from basic unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes . Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates , plants and ciliates communicate by using pheromones
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Alcohol
In chemistry , an ALCOHOL is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–O H ) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages . The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol ) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose ) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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John Logie Baird
JOHN LOGIE BAIRD FRSE (/ˈloʊɡi bɛərd/ ; 14 August 1888 – 14 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television , demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube. In 1928 the Baird Television Development Company achieved the first transatlantic television transmission. Baird's early technological successes and his role in the practical introduction of broadcast television for home entertainment have earned him a prominent place in television's history. Baird was ranked number 44 in the BBC
BBC
's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote in 2002
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