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Mohammad Mosaddegh
MOHAMMAD MOSADDEGH (Persian : محمد مصدق‎‎; IPA: ( listen ); 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967), was an Iranian politician . He was the head of a democratically elected government, holding office as the Prime Minister of Iran
Prime Minister of Iran
from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d\'état aided by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
and the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service . An author, administrator, lawyer, and prominent parliamentarian, his administration introduced a range of progressive social and political reforms such as social security and land reforms, including taxation of the rent on land. His government's most notable policy, however, was the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, which had been under British control since 1913 through the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC/AIOC) (later British Petroleum and BP )
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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Politician
A POLITICIAN is a person active in party politics , or a person holding or seeking office in government. In democratic countries, politicians seek elective positions within a government through elections or, at times, temporary appointment to replace politicians who have died, resigned or have been otherwise removed from office. In non-democratic countries, they employ other means of reaching power through appointment, bribery, revolutions and intrigues. Some politicians are experienced in the art or science of government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution
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Secret Intelligence Service
The SECRET INTELLIGENCE SERVICE (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6 ), is the foreign intelligence agency of the Government of the United Kingdom
Government of the United Kingdom
. The SIS Chief is held accountable to the Foreign Secretary . SIS is bound by the Intelligence Services Act 1994 . The name MI6 was used as a flag of convenience during the Second World War
Second World War
when it was known by many names. The existence of the SIS was not officially acknowledged until 1994. It forms a part of the UK's intelligence machinery alongside GCHQ
GCHQ
, MI5 and Defence Intelligence . In late 2010, the head of SIS delivered what he said was the first public address by a serving chief of the agency in its then 101-year history
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Nationalization
NATIONALIZATION, or NATIONALISATION, is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state. Nationalization
Nationalization
usually refers to private assets or assets owned by lower levels of government, such municipalities , being transferred to the state. The opposites of nationalization are privatization , municipalization and demutualization . When previously nationalized assets are privatized and subsequently returned to public ownership by a later government, they are said to have undergone RENATIONALIZATION or RENATIONALISATION. Industries that are usually subject to nationalization include transport , communications , energy , banking and natural resources . Nationalization
Nationalization
may occur with or without compensation to the former owners
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University Of Neuchâtel
The UNIVERSITY OF NEUCHâTEL (UNINE) is a French-speaking university based in Neuchâtel , Switzerland
Switzerland
. The university has four faculties (schools) and more than a dozen institutes, including arts and human sciences, natural sciences, law and economics. The Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, with 2,000 students, is the largest school of those that comprise the University
University
of Neuchâtel. The university has an annual budget of CHF 120 million and an annual research fund of CHF 40 million. Approximately 4,000 students, including 500 PhD students attend the university, and more than 600 diplomas, licences, doctorates and certificates are awarded each year. The university has more than 1100 employees
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Sciences Po
SCIENCES PO (French pronunciation: ​ ), or PARIS INSTITUTE OF POLITICAL STUDIES (French : Institut d'études politiques de Paris, French pronunciation: ​ ), is a university. The institution is a member of several academic consortia (including the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs and the Global Public Policy Network ) and has partnerships with 470 universities including Columbia University
Columbia University
, the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
, the London School of Economics , and Peking University . In France, Sciences Po
Sciences Po
has seven campuses in Dijon
Dijon
, Le Havre
Le Havre
, Menton , Nancy , Paris
Paris
, Poitiers
Poitiers
, Reims
Reims

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Democrat Party (Persia)
DEMOCRAT PARTY (Persian : فرقه دموکرات‎‎) was a social democrat political party in Qajari Persia
Persia
, during the constitutional period . It was one of two major parliamentary parties at the time, along with the Moderate Socialists Party . It was largely composed of middle-class intellectuals and stood for the separation of church and state . HISTORYInitially an offshoot of the Transcaucasia -based Social Democratic Party , it severed direct ties with Baku
Baku
and dropped "Socialist" from the name in deference to the conservative public. Its ideology, however, remained heavily borrowed from the old party. In 1918, the party split definitively into the Pro-Reorganization Democrats (Persian : دموکرات‌های تشکیلی‎, translit
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Moderate Socialists' Party
MODERATE SOCIALISTS (Persian : اجتماعیون اعتدالیون‎, translit. Ejtemāʿīyūn-e eʿtedālīyūn) or simply MODERATES PARTY (Persian : فرقه اعتدالیون‎), was a political party in Qajari Persia
Persia
and one of the two major parties of the constitutional period alongside its parliamentary rival Social Democratic Party –Democrat Party . CONTENTS * 1 Members * 2 Views * 3 Parliament election results * 4 References MEMBERSThe party membership consisted largely of landowners, constitutionalist ulema and bazaaris . It espoused the traditional middle-class and landed aristocracy
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin
Latin
: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary

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Anglo-Persian Oil Company
The ANGLO-PERSIAN OIL COMPANY (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman , Iran
Iran
. It was the first company to extract petroleum from Iran
Iran
. In 1935 APOC was renamed the ANGLO-IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (AIOC) and in 1954 it was renamed again to the BRITISH PETROLEUM COMPANY (BP), one of the antecedents of the modern BP public limited company , while its assets in Iran
Iran
were nationalized and taken over by the NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY
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BP
BP P.L.C., formerly BRITISH PETROLEUM, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London
London
, England. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas "supermajors ", whose performance in 2012 made it the world's sixth-largest oil and gas company, the sixth-largest energy company by market capitalization and the company with the world\'s fifth-largest revenue (turnover) . It is a vertically integrated company operating in all areas of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production , refining , distribution and marketing , petrochemicals , power generation and trading . It also has renewable energy interests in biofuels and wind power . As of 31 December 2016, BP had operations in 72 countries worldwide, produced around 3.3 million barrels per day (520,000 m3/d) of oil equivalent , and had total proved reserves of 17.81 billion barrels (2.832×109 m3) of oil equivalent
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Fath-Ali Shah Qajar
FATH-ALI SHAH QAJAR (Persian : فتح‌على شاه قاجار‎; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 5 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah
Shah
(Qajar emperor ) of Iran
Iran
. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death. His reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
, comprising what is nowadays Georgia , Dagestan
Dagestan
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Armenia
Armenia
, to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay . Historian Joseph M
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Khorasan Province
KHORASAN (Persian : استان خراسان‎‎ listen (help ·info )) (also transcribed as KHURASAN and KHORASSAN, also called TRAXIANE during Hellenistic
Hellenistic
and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran
Iran
, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire . The name Khorasan is Persian and means "where the sun arrives from." The name was given to the eastern province of Persia during the Sassanid Empire
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Institut D'études Politiques De Paris
SCIENCES PO (French pronunciation: ​ ), or PARIS INSTITUTE OF POLITICAL STUDIES (French : Institut d'études politiques de Paris, French pronunciation: ​ ), is a university (legally a grande école ) located in seven cities in France
France
. Sciences Po
Sciences Po
has campuses in Dijon
Dijon
, Le Havre
Le Havre
, Menton
Menton
, Nancy , Paris , Poitiers
Poitiers
, Reims
Reims
. The institution is a member of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs and the Global Public Policy Network . Sciences Po
Sciences Po
was founded as a private institution by Émile Boutmy in 1872 to promote a new class of French politicians in the aftermath of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1871
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Abbas Mirza
RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR (1826–28) * Capture of Erivan OTTOMAN–PERSIAN WAR (1821–23) * Battle of Erzurum (1821) Reviewing in battle ABBAS MIRZA (Persian : عباس میرزا‎‎) (August 26, 1789 – October 25, 1833), was a Qajar crown prince of Persia
Persia
. He developed a reputation as a military commander during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813 and the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 with neighbouring Imperial Russia , as well as through the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823 with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. He is furthermore noted as an early modernizer of Persia
Persia
's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali Shah . Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life
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