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Mogao Caves
The Mogao Caves
Mogao Caves
(Chinese: 莫高窟), also known as the Thousand Buddha
Buddha
Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas (Chinese: 千佛洞; pinyin: qiān fó dòng), form a system of 492 temples 25 km (16 mi) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu
Gansu
province, China. The caves may also be known as the Dunhuang
Dunhuang
Caves, however, this term is also used as a collective term to include other Buddhist cave sites in and around the Dunhuang area, such as the Western Thousand Buddha
Buddha
Caves, Eastern Thousand Buddha
Buddha
Caves, Yulin Caves, and Five Temple Caves
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Stele
A stele (/ˈstiːli/ STEE-lee)[Note 1] is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave
Grave
steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way
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Northern Liang
The Northern Liang
Northern Liang
(Chinese: 北涼; pinyin: Bĕi Liáng; 397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
in China. It was founded by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Juqu family, although they initially supported the Han official Duan Ye as prince, they overthrew him in 401 and took over the state for themselves. All rulers of the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
proclaimed themselves "wang" (translatable as "prince" or "king"). Most Chinese historians view the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
as having ended in 439, when its capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei, Gansu) fell to Northern Wei
Northern Wei
forces and its prince Juqu Mujian was captured
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Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha[note 3] (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama,[note 4] Shakyamuni Buddha,[4][note 5] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[6][note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha
Magadha
and Kosala.[6][8] Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Xiongnu
The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu) were a confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe
Asian Steppe
from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire.[4] After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu
Gansu
and Xinjiang
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Northern Wei
The Northern Wei
Northern Wei
or the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
Empire (/weɪ/),[7] also known as the Tuoba
Tuoba
Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba
Tuoba
clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534[8] (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties
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Vimalakirti
Vimalakīrti (Sanskrit: विमल vimala "stainless, undefiled" + कीर्ति kīrti "fame, glory, reputation") is the central figure in the Vimalakirti
Vimalakirti
Sutra,[1] which presents him as the ideal Mahayana
Mahayana
Budd
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Manjusri
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means "Gentle Glory" in Sanskrit.[1] Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[2] literally "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less literally, "Prince Mañjuśrī".Contents1 In Mahāyāna Buddhism 2 Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism 3 Iconography 4 Mantras 5 In Buddhist cultures5.1 In China 5.2 In Tibet 5.3 In Nepal 5.4 In Japan 5.5 In Indonesia6 Gallery 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksIn Mahāyāna Buddhism[edit] Manjushri
Manjushri
statue
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Northern Zhou
The Northern Zhou
Northern Zhou
(/dʒoʊ/;[4] Chinese: 北周; pinyin: Bĕi Zhōu) followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China
China
from 557 to 581 AD. The last of the Northern Dynasties of China's Northern and Southern dynasties period, it was eventually overthrown by the Sui Dynasty. Like the preceding Western and Northern Wei
Northern Wei
dynasties, the Northern Zhou were members of the Tuoba
Tuoba
clan of the Xianbei. The Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei
Western Wei
and Eastern Wei
Eastern Wei
in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou
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Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty (/swiː/;[3] Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China
China
of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in the entirety of China
China
proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians) within its territory
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Meditation
Meditation
Meditation
can be defined as a practice where an individual focuses their mind on a particular object, thought or activity to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.[1] Meditation
Meditation
may be used to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain.[2] It may be done while sitting, repeating a mantra, and closing the eyes in a quiet environment. Meditation
Meditation
has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its Indian origins to other cultures where it is commonly practiced in private and business life
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Mnemonic
A mnemonic (/nəˈmɒnɪk/,[1] the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful—which, in turn, provides better retention of the information. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms, or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can also be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms
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Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
The Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
initiated by Tang Emperor Wuzong reached its height in the year 845 AD. Among its purposes were to appropriate war funds and to cleanse China of foreign influences. As such, the persecution was directed not only towards Buddhism
Buddhism
but also towards other religions, such as Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam.Contents1 Reasons for the Persecution 2 Events of the Persecution 3 Effects on Buddhism 4 Effects on other religions 5 See also 6 Sources 7 ReferencesReasons for the Persecution[edit] Emperor Wuzong's reasons for persecuting the Buddhist organisations and temples throughout China were economic, social, and religious.Economic reasons: In 843 the emperor's armies won a decisive battle against the Uyghur tribes at the cost of almost bankrupting the country
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Emperor Wuzong Of Tang
Emperor Wuzong of Tang
Emperor Wuzong of Tang
(July 2, 814 – April 22, 846), né Li Chan, later changed to Li Yan just before his death, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty
Dynasty
of China, reigning from 840 to 846. Emperor Wuzong is mainly known in modern times for the religious persecution that occurred during his reign
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