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Modular Programming
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a program into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality. A module interface expresses the elements that are provided and required by the module. The elements defined in the interface are detectable by other modules. The implementation contains the working code that corresponds to the elements declared in the interface. Modular programming is closely related to structured programming and object-oriented programming, all having the same goal of facilitating construction of large software programs and systems by decomposition into smaller pieces, and all originating around the 1960s
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Dynamic Programming Language
Dynamic programming
Dynamic programming
language, in computer science, is a class of high-level programming languages which, at runtime, execute many common programming behaviors that static programming languages perform during compilation. These behaviors could include extension of the program, by adding new code, by extending objects and definitions, or by modifying the type system. Although similar behaviours can be emulated in nearly any language, with varying degrees of difficulty, complexity and performance costs, dynamic languages provide direct tools to make use of them
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Literate Programming
Literate programming
Literate programming
is a programming paradigm introduced by Donald Knuth in which a program is given as an explanation of the program logic in a natural language, such as English, interspersed with snippets of macros and traditional source code, from which a compilable source code can be generated.[1] The literate programming paradigm, as conceived by Knuth, represents a move away from writing programs in the manner and order imposed by the computer, and instead enables programmers to develop programs in the order demanded by the logic and flow of their thoughts.[2] Literate programs
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Spreadsheet
A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.[1][2][3] Spreadsheets are developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets.[4] The program operates on data entered in cells of a table. Each cell may contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells. A spreadsheet may also refer to one such electronic document.[5][6][7] Spreadsheet
Spreadsheet
users can adjust any stored value and observe the effects on calculated values. This makes the spreadsheet useful for "what-if" analysis since many cases can be rapidly investigated without manual recalculation
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Concurrent Constraint Logic Programming
Concurrent constraint logic programming is a version of constraint logic programming aimed primarily at programming concurrent processes rather than (or in addition to) solving constraint satisfaction problems. Goals in constraint logic programming are evaluated concurrently; a concurrent process is therefore programmed as the evaluation of a goal by the interpreter. Syntactically, concurrent constraints logic programs are similar to non-concurrent programs, the only exception being that clauses include guards, which are constraints that may block the applicability of the clause under some conditions. Semantically, concurrent constraint logic programming differs from its non-concurrent versions because a goal evaluation is intended to realize a concurrent process rather than finding a solution to a problem
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Concurrent Logic Programming
Concurrent logic programming is a variant of logic programming in which programs are sets of guarded Horn clauses of the form:H :- G1, …, Gn B1, …, Bn.The conjunction G1, … , Gn is called the guard of the clause, and is the commitment operator. Declaratively, guarded Horn clauses are read as ordinary logical implications:H if G1 and … and Gn or B1 and … and Bn.However, procedurally, when there are several clauses whose heads H match a given goal, then all of the clauses are executed in parallel, checking whether their guards G1, … , Gn hold. If the guards of more than one clause hold, then a committed choice is made to one of the clauses, and execution proceedes with the subgoals B1, …, Bn of the chosen clause. These subgoals can also be executed in parallel
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Natural-language Programming
Natural-language programming (NLP) is an ontology-assisted way of programming in terms of natural-language sentences, e.g. English. A structured document with Content, sections and subsections for explanations of sentences forms a NLP document, which is actually a computer program. Natural languages and natural-language user interfaces include Inform7, a natural programming language for making interactive fiction, Ring[1][2], a general-purpose language, Shakespeare, an esoteric natural programming language in the style of the plays of William Shakespeare, and Wolfram Alpha, a computational knowledge engine, using natural-language input.Contents1 Interpretation 2 Software paradigm 3 Publication value of natural-language programs and documents 4 Contribution of natural-language programs to machine knowledge 5 See also 6 Bibliography 7 References 8 External linksInterpretation[edit] The smallest unit of statement in NLP is a sentence
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Inductive Programming
Inductive programming (IP) is a special area of automatic programming, covering research from artificial intelligence and programming, which addresses learning of typically declarative (logic or functional) and often recursive programs from incomplete specifications, such as input/output examples or constraints. Depending on the programming language used, there are several kinds of inductive programming
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Attribute-oriented Programming
Attribute-oriented programming (@OP) is a program-level marking technique. Programmers can mark program elements (e.g. classes and methods) to indicate that they maintain application-specific or domain-specific semantics. For example, some programmers may define a "logging" attribute and associate it with a method to indicate the method should implement a logging function, while other programmers may define a "web service" attribute and associate it with a class to indicate the class should be implemented as a web service. Attributes separate application's core logic (or business logic) from application-specific or domain-specific semantics (e.g. logging and web service functions). By hiding the implementation details of those semantics from program code, attributes increase the level of programming abstraction and reduce programming complexity, resulting in simpler and more readable programs
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Non-structured Programming
Non-structured programming is the historically earliest programming paradigm capable of creating Turing-complete algorithms. It is often contrasted with the structured programming paradigm, in particular with the use of unstructured control flow using goto statements or equivalent. The distinction was particularly stressed by the publication of the influential "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" open letter in 1968 by Dutch computer scientist Edsger W. Dijkstra, who coined the term "structured programming".[1] Unstructured programming has been heavily criticized for producing hardly-readable ("spaghetti") code. There are both high- and low-level programming languages that use non-structured programming
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Time-driven Programming
Time-driven programming is a computer programming paradigm, where the control flow of the computer program is driven by a clock and is often used in Real-time computing. A program is divided into a set of tasks (i.e., processes or threads), each of which has a periodic activation pattern. The activation patterns are stored in a dispatch table ordered by time. The Least-Common-Multiple (LCM) of all period-times determines the length of the dispatch table. The scheduler of the program dispatches tasks by consulting the next entry in the dispatch table. After processing all entries, it continues by looping back to the beginning of the table. The programming paradigm is mostly used for safety critical programs, since the behaviour of the program is highly deterministic. No external events are allowed to affect the control-flow of the program, the same pattern (i.e., described by the dispatch table) will be repeated time after time
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Function-level Programming
In computer science, function-level programming refers to one of the two contrasting programming paradigms identified by John Backus
John Backus
in his work on programs as mathematical objects, the other being value-level programming. In his 1977 Turing award
Turing award
lecture, Backus set forth what he considered to be the need to switch to a different philosophy in programming language design:[1]Programming languages appear to be in trouble. Each successive language incorporates, with a little cleaning up, all the features of its predecessors plus a few more. [...] Each new language claims new and fashionable features... but the plain fact is that few languages make programming sufficiently cheaper or more reliable to justify the cost of producing and learning to use them.He designed FP to be the first programming language to specifically support the function-level programming style. A function-level program is variable-free (cf
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Homoiconicity
In computer programming, homoiconicity (from the Greek words homo meaning the same and icon meaning representation) is a property of some programming languages in which the program structure is similar to its syntax, and therefore the program's internal representation can be inferred by reading the text's layout.[1] If a language is homoiconic, it means that the language text has the same structure as its abstract syntax tree (AST) (i.e. the AST and the syntax are isomorphic). This allows all code in the language to be accessed and transformed as data, using the same representation. This property is often summarized saying that the language treats "code as data". In a homoiconic language, the primary representation of programs is also a data structure in a primitive type of the language itself
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Value-level Programming
Value-level programming refers to one of the two contrasting programming paradigms identified by John Backus
John Backus
in his work on programs as mathematical objects, the other being function-level programming. Backus originally used the term object-level programming but that term is now prone to confusion with object-oriented programming. Value-level programs are those that describe how to combine various values (i.e., numbers, symbols, strings, etc.) to form other values until the final result values are obtained
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Tacit Programming
Tacit programming, also called point-free style, is a programming paradigm in which function definitions do not identify the arguments (or "points") on which they operate. Instead the definitions merely compose other functions, among which are combinators that manipulate the arguments. Tacit programming is of theoretical interest, because the strict use of composition results in programs that are well adapted for equational reasoning.[1] It is also the natural style of certain programming languages, including APL and its derivatives,[2] and concatenative languages such as Forth
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Concatenative Programming Language
A concatenative programming language is a point-free computer programming language in which all expressions denote functions, and the juxtaposition of expressions denotes function composition.[1] Concatenative programming replaces function application, which is common in other programming styles, with function composition as the default way to build subroutines.Contents1 Example 2 Properties 3 Implementations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksExample[edit] For example, a sequence of operations in an applicative language like the following:y = foo(x) z = bar(y) w = baz(z)...is written in a concatenative language as a sequence of functions, without parameters:[2]foo bar bazFunctions and procedures written in concatenative style are not value level, i.e
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