HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Mitral Cells
Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli. Axons of the mitral cells transfer information to a number of areas in the brain, including the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. Mitral cells receive excitatory input from olfactory sensory neurons and external tufted cells on their primary dendrites, whereas inhibitory input arises either from granule cells onto their lateral dendrites and soma or from periglomerular cells onto their dendritic tuft. Mitral cells together with tufted cells form an obligatory relay for all olfactory information entering from the olfactory nerve. Mitral cell output is not a passive reflection of their input from the olfactory nerve
[...More...]

"Mitral Cells" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cell
Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. They are located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. They receive information from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons, forming synapses in neuropils called glomeruli. Axons of the mitral cells transfer information to a number of areas in the brain, including the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. Mitral cells receive excitatory input from olfactory sensory neurons and external tufted cells on their primary dendrites, whereas inhibitory input arises either from granule cells onto their lateral dendrites and soma or from periglomerular cells onto their dendritic tuft. Mitral cells together with tufted cells form an obligatory relay for all olfactory information entering from the olfactory nerve. Mitral cell output is not a passive reflection of their input from the olfactory nerve
[...More...]

"Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cell" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hippocampal Formation
The hippocampal formation is a compound structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. There is no consensus concerning which brain regions are encompassed by the term, with some authors defining it as the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper and the subiculum;[1] and others including also the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal cortex.[2] The hippocampal formation is thought to play a role in memory, spatial navigation and control of attention
[...More...]

"Hippocampal Formation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Olfactory Nerve
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve (actually many small nerve fascicles) travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain
[...More...]

"Olfactory Nerve" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Olfactory Receptor Neuron
An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.[2]Contents1 Structure 2 Function2.1 Desensitization 2.2 Number of distinguishable odors3 Other animals 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] Humans have about 10 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium.[4] Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor
[...More...]

"Olfactory Receptor Neuron" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Olfactory Receptor
Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell. Activated olfactory receptors trigger nerve impulses which transmit information about odor to the brain
[...More...]

"Olfactory Receptor" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Olfactory Tract
The olfactory tract is a bundle of afferent nerve fibers from the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb that connects to several target regions in the brain, including the piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex. It is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward. It lies in the olfactory sulcus on the inferior surface of the frontal lobe, and divides posteriorly into two striae, a medial olfactory stria and a lateral olfactory stria
[...More...]

"Olfactory Tract" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Olfactory Trigone
The olfactory trigone is a small triangular area in front of the anterior perforated substance. Its apex, directed forward, occupies the posterior part of the olfactory sulcus, and is brought into view by throwing back the olfactory tract. It is part of the olfactory pathway.[1] References[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 827 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)^ Samudralwar DL, Diprete CC, Ni BF, Ehmann WD, Markesbery WR (June 1995). "Elemental imbalances in the olfactory pathway in Alzheimer's disease". J. Neurol. Sci. 130 (2): 139–45. doi:10.1016/0022-510X(95)00018-W
[...More...]

"Olfactory Trigone" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Lateral Olfactory Stria
The lateral olfactory stria is directed across the lateral part of the anterior perforated substance and then bends abruptly medially toward the uncus of the parahippocampal gyrus. References[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 826 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) External links[edit]http://instruct.uwo.ca/anatomy/530/olfactor.gif "1-6". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine
[...More...]

"Lateral Olfactory Stria" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Primary Olfactory Cortex
The primary olfactory cortex is a portion of the cerebral cortex involved in olfaction.[1][2][3] Some sources state that it includes the prepyriform area and the entorhinal cortex,[4] whilst others state that it includes the prepyriform area and the periamygdaloid cortex.[5] References[edit]^ "Sylvius Neuroanatomical Reference". Retrieved 2009-11-20.  ^ Zelano C, Montag J, Khan R, Sobel N (2009). "A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex". PLoS ONE. 4 (3): e4965. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004965. PMC 2654926 . PMID 19305509.  ^ Johnson DM, Illig KR, Behan M, Haberly LB (September 2000). "New features of connectivity in piriform cortex visualized by intracellular injection of pyramidal cells suggest that "primary" olfactory cortex functions like "association" cortex in other sensory systems". J. Neurosci. 20 (18): 6974–82
[...More...]

"Primary Olfactory Cortex" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

EC-hippocampus System
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a major part of the hippocampal formation of the brain, and is reciprocally connected with the hippocampus. The hippocampal formation, which consists of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, the dentate gyrus, the subicular areas and the EC forms one of the most important parts of the limbic system. The entorhinal cortex is an infolding of the parahippocampal gyrus into the inferior (temporal) horn of the lateral ventricle. Role in knowledge processing and memory[edit] Studies, with human patients and with experimental animals, suggest that knowledge stored as explicit memory is first acquired through processing in one or more of the three polymodal association cortices (prefrontal, limbic, and parieto-occipital-temporal) to form visual, auditory and somatic information
[...More...]

"EC-hippocampus System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Prepyriform Area
Prepyriform area (or prepiriform cortex) is a portion of the rhinencephalon consisting of paleocortex. Some sources state that it is part of the primary olfactory cortex.[1] References[edit]^ "Anatomy of Olfactory System: eMedicine Clinical Procedures". Retrieved 2009-11-20. v t eAnatomy of the cerebral cortex of the human brainFrontal lobeSuperolateralPrefrontalSuperior frontal gyrus4 6 8Middle frontal gyrus9 10 46Inferior frontal gyrus: 11 47-Pars orbitalis Broca's area44-Pars opercularis 45-Pars triangularisSuperior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcusPrecentralPrecentral gyrus Precentral sulcusMedial/inferiorPrefrontalSuperior frontal gyrus4 6Medial frontal gyrus8 9Paraterminal gyrus/Paraolfactory area12Straight gyrus11Orbital gyri/Orbitofrontal cortex10 11 12Ventromedial prefrontal
[...More...]

"Prepyriform Area" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Olfactory Mucosa
The olfactory mucosa is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is made up of the olfactory epithelium and the underlying lamina propria, connective tissue containing fibroblasts, blood vessels, Bowman's glands and bundles of fine axons from the olfactory neurons.[1] The mucus protects the olfactory epithelium and allows odors to dissolve so that they can be detected by olfactory receptor neurons. Electron microscopy studies show that Bowman's glands contain cells with large secretory vesicles.[2] The exact composition of the secretions from Bowman's glands is unclear, but there is evidence that Bowman's glands do not produce odorant binding protein.[3] In vertebrates, the olfactory epithelium consists of a three basic cell types: bipolar olfactory receptor neurons; sustentacular cells, a type of supporting cell; and basal cells, the stem cells that continuously give rise to new olfactory receptor neurons and sustentacular cells.[4] Cells in the olfactory mucosa have been s
[...More...]

"Olfactory Mucosa" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Periamygdaloid Cortex
Periamygdaloid cortex (or periamygdalar area) is a portion of the rhinencephalon consisting of paleocortex. It is a cortical-like nucleus of the amygdaloid complex
[...More...]

"Periamygdaloid Cortex" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Stria Medullaris Of Thalamus
The stria medullaris is a part of the epithalamus. It is a fiber bundle containing afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus, and is found on the border between dorsal and medial surfaces of thalamus
[...More...]

"Stria Medullaris Of Thalamus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Habenular Nuclei
The habenular nuclei (habenula is Latin
Latin
for "little rein") acts as a regulator of key central nervous system neurotransmitters, connecting the forebrain and midbrain within the epithalamus.[1][2][3] Although it was predominantly studied for its demonstration of asymmetrical brain development and function, in recent years many scientists have begun to examine the habenular nuclei's role in motivation and behavior as it relates to an understanding of the physiology of addiction.Contents1 Anatomy and connectivity 2 Motivation and addiction2.1 Nicotine
Nicotine
and nAChRs3 References 4 External linksAnatomy and connectivity[edit] The habenular nuclei comprise a small group of nuclei that are part of the epithalamus of the diencephalon, and is located just above the thalamus and is divided into two asymmetric halves: the medial habenula (MHb) and the lateral habenula (LHb)
[...More...]

"Habenular Nuclei" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.