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Minsk
Minsk
Minsk
(Belarusian: Мінск, pronounced [mʲinsk]; Russian: Минск, [mʲinsk]) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk
Minsk
has a special administrative status in Belarus
Belarus
and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region
Minsk Region
(voblast) and Minsk
Minsk
raion (district). In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. Minsk
Minsk
is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) and seat of the Executive Secretary. The earliest historical references to Minsk
Minsk
date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers
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Halifax Regional Municipality
Halifax (/ˈhælɪfæks/), legally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The municipality had a population of 403,131 in 2016, with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour.[3][4] The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and the Municipality of Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada
Canada
with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, and the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, fishing, mining, forestry and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality
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Ice Sheet
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi),[1] this is also known as continental glacier.[2] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica
Antarctica
and Greenland; during the last glacial period at Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
(LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet
Laurentide ice sheet
covered much of North America, the Weichselian
Weichselian
ice sheet covered northern Europe and the Patagonian Ice
Ice
Sheet covered southern South America. Ice
Ice
sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers. Masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap
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Town Privileges
Town
Town
privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe
Europe
probably dates back to Italian models, which in turn were oriented towards the traditions of the self-administration of Roman cities Judicially, a borough (or burgh) was distinguished from the countryside by means of a charter from the ruling monarch that defined its privileges and laws. Common privileges involved trade (marketplace, the storing of goods, etc.) and the establishment of guilds. Some of these privileges were permanent and could imply that the town obtained the right to be called a borough, hence the term borough rights (German Stadtrecht, Dutch stadsrechten). Some degree of self-government, representation by diet, and tax-relief could also be granted
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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania. It was one of the largest[2][3] and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution
Revolution
was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets') which contended for authority
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Quaternary Glaciation
The Quaternary
Quaternary
glaciation, also known as the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
glaciation or the current ice age, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary
Quaternary
period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.[1] During this period, ice sheets expanded, notably from out of Antarctica
Antarctica
and Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets occurred elsewhere (for example, the Laurentide ice sheet). The major effects of the ice age were the erosion of land and the deposition of material, both over large parts of the continents; the modification of river systems; the creation of millions of lakes, changes in sea level, the development of pluvial lakes far from the ice margins, the isostatic adjustment of the earth's crust, flooding, and abnormal winds
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Urstromtal
An Urstromtal
Urstromtal
(plural: Urstromtäler) is a type of broad glacial valley, for example, in northern Central Europe, that appeared during the ice ages, or individual glacial periods of an ice age, at the edge of the Scandinavian ice sheet and was formed by meltwaters that flowed more or less parallel to the ice margin. Urstromtäler are an element of the glacial series. The term is German and means "ancient stream valley". Although often translated as "glacial valley", it should not be confused with a valley carved out by a glacier
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Black Sea
The Black Sea
Black Sea
is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.[1] It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni
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Voblast
An oblast (/ˈɒbləst/ OB-ləst) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Official terms in successor states of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
differ, but some still use a cognate of the Russian term, e.g., voblast (voblasts, voblasts', [ˈvobɫasʲtsʲ]) is used for regions of Belarus, and oblys (plural: oblystar) for regions of Kazakhstan. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English,[1] but it is, nevertheless, often translated as "area", "zone", "province", or "region"
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Temperate Broadleaf And Mixed Forests
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions. The term 'Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest' is used by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in global biogeography as one of the biome designations under which to organize ecoregions.[1]Contents1 Ecology 2 Trees 3 Climate 4 Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
ecoregions4.1 Australasia 4.2 Eurasia 4.3 Americas5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEcology[edit] The typical structure of these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 30 to 61 m (100 to 200 ft) high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to 15 m (30 to 50 ft) shorter than the canopy
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Hemiboreal
Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones. The term is most frequently used in the context of ecosystems.Contents1 Botany 2 Climate 3 Examples 4 ReferencesBotany[edit] A hemiboreal forest has some characteristics of a boreal forest, and also shares features with temperate-zone forests to the south. Coniferous trees predominate in the hemiboreal zone, but a significant number of deciduous species, such as aspens, oaks, maples, ash trees, birches, beeches, hazels, and hornbeams, also occur. Climate[edit] The term sometimes denotes the form of climate characteristic of the zone of hemiboreal forests—specifically, the climates designated Dfb, Dwb and Dsb in the Köppen climate classification scheme
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Humid Continental Climate
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
in 1900,[1] which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. Precipitation is usually well distributed through the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). Some climatologists prefer to use the 0 °C isotherm as it is more commonly used. In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid
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Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles).[2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
in the southwest, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica)
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