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Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
(Chinese: 明命, 25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn
Nguyễn
Phúc Đảm (chữ Hán: 阮福膽), also known as Nguyễn
Nguyễn
Phúc Kiểu) was the second emperor of the Nguyễn
Nguyễn
dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841.[1] He was the fourth son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Nguyễn
Nguyễn
Phúc Cảnh, had died in 1801
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British East India Company
The East India
India
Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India
India
Company and informally as John Company,[1] was an English and later British joint-stock company,[2] that was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies"[citation needed] (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China
Qing China
and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent. Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade[citation needed], particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and opium
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Chữ Hán
Until the beginning of the 20th century, government and scholarly documents in Vietnam were written in classical Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言[1]), using Chinese characters with Vietnamese approximation of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciations. At the same time popular novels and poetry in Vietnamese were written in the chữ nôm script, which used Chines
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Vietnamese Martyrs
The Vietnamese Martyrs
Vietnamese Martyrs
(Vietnamese: Các Thánh Tử đạo Việt Nam), also known as the Martyrs of Indochina, Martyrs of Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina, or Andrew Dung-Lac
Andrew Dung-Lac
and Companions (Anrê Dũng-Lạc và Các bạn tử đạo), are saints on the General Roman Calendar who were canonized by Pope
Pope
John Paul II. On June 19, 1988, thousands of Overseas Vietnamese worldwide gathered at the Vatican for the Celebration of the Canonization
Canonization
of 117 Vietnamese Martyrs, an event chaired by Monsignor Tran Van Hoai
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Vietnamese Alphabet
The Vietnamese alphabet
Vietnamese alphabet
(Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages,[3] in particular the Portuguese alphabet,[1] with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word
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Hán-Nôm
Until the beginning of the 20th century, government and scholarly documents in Vietnam were written in classical Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言[1]), using Chinese characters with Vietnamese approximation of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciations. At the same time popular novels and poetry in Vietnamese were written in the chữ nôm script, which used Chines
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Vietnamese Language
Vietnamese /viˌɛtnəˈmiːz/ ( listen) (Tiếng Việt) is a Viet–Muong language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers (several times as many as the other Austroasiatic languages combined).[6] Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation
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Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
(from Greek ορθοδοξία, orthodoxía – "right opinion")[1] is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.[2] In the Christian sense the term means "conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church."[3] The first seven Ecumenical Councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines. In some English speaking countries, Jews who adhere to all the traditions and commandments as legislated in the
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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
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Martyrdom
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people imprisoned[citation needed] or killed for espousing a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances
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Vietnam
Coordinates: 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)FlagEmblemMotto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness"Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca[a] (English: "Army March")Location of  Vietnam  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850Largest city
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Pierre Borie
Pierre-Rose-Ursule Dumoulin-Borie (20 February 1808 – 24 November 1838) was a French Catholic
Catholic
missionary priest and a member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He is a Catholic
Catholic
saint, canonized in 1988 along with other Vietnamese Martyrs. Life[edit]Pierre Borie (1808-1838).Pierre Borie was the sixth of the twelve children of Guillaume Borie and his wife Rose Labrunie. The Borie family was a middle-class family of Beynat
Beynat
in Bas-Limousin
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Qui Nhơn
Quy Nhơn (Vietnamese: [kwi ɲəːŋ] ( listen)) is a coastal city in Bình Định Province
Bình Định Province
in central Vietnam. It is composed of 16 wards and five communes with a total of 284 km². Quy Nhơn is the capital of Bình Định Province. As of 2009 its population was 280,535[1] Historically, the commercial activities of the city focused on agriculture and fishing. In recent years, however, there has been a significant shift towards service industries and tourism
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Ruism
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
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Pigneau De Behaine
Pierre Joseph Georges Pigneau (2 November 1741[1] in Origny-en-Thiérache – 9 October 1799, in Qui Nhơn), commonly known as Pigneau de Béhaine (French: [piɲo də be.ɛn]), also Pierre Pigneaux and Bá Đa Lộc ("Pedro" 百多祿 or 伯多祿), was a French Catholic priest best known for his role in assisting Nguyễn Ánh (later Emperor Gia Long) to establish the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam after the Tây Sơn rebellion.Contents1 Early life 2 Superior of the College General (1767–1774) 3 Encounter with Nguyễn Ánh 4 Embassy to France 5 Return to Vietnam 6 Death 7 Works 8 See also 9 Notes 10 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Pierre Pigneau was born in Origny-en-Thiérache (later Aisne, France), where the family of his mother lived. His father's family owned a small estate named Béhaine, in the nearby parish of Marle
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