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Mindaugas
MINDAUGAS (German : Myndowen, Latin : Mindowe, Old East Slavic : Мендог — Mendog, Belarusian : Міндоўг or Mindoūh, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
and the only King of Lithuania . Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 treaty as an elder duke, and in 1236 as the leader of all the Lithuanians. The contemporary and modern sources discussing his ascent mention strategic marriages along with banishment or murder of his rivals. He extended his domain into regions southeast of Lithuania proper
Lithuania proper
during the 1230s and 1240s. In 1250 or 1251, during the course of internal power struggles, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic; this action enabled him to establish an alliance with the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
, a long-standing antagonist of the Lithuanians
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Hypatian Codex
The HYPATIAN CODEX (also known as Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Belarusian : Іпацьеўскі летапіс; Russian : Ипатьевская летопись; Ukrainian : Іпатіївський літопис, Іпатський літопис, Літопис руський за Іпатським списком) is a compendium of three chronicles : the Primary Chronicle
Chronicle
, Kiev Chronicle
Chronicle
, and Galician-Volhynian Chronicle
Chronicle
. It is the most important source of historical data for southern Rus\' . The codex was rediscovered in what is today Ukraine in 1617 and then copied by monks in Kyiv in 1621. It was re-discovered yet again in the 18th century at the Hypatian Monastery of Kostroma
Kostroma
by the Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin
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Papal Bull
A PAPAL BULL is a specific kind of public decree, letters patent , or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla ) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 Seal * 4 Content * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading HISTORY Printed text of Pope
Pope
Leo X 's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther , also known as Exsurge Domine , issued in June 1520 Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes. However, it had become official by the 15th century, when one of the offices of the Apostolic Chancery was named the "register of bulls" ("registrum bullarum")
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Bychowiec Chronicle
The BYCHOWIEC CHRONICLE (also spelled Bykhovets, Bykovets or Bychovec) is an anonymous 16th-century chronicle of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . Although one of the least reliable sources of the epoch, it is considered the most extensive redaction of the Lithuanian Chronicles . CONTENTS * 1 Origin and publication * 2 Content * 3 References * 4 External links ORIGIN AND PUBLICATIONThe chronicle was most probably authored between 1519 and 1542, though some parts continued to be added until 1574. Authors of the chronicle are not known. The text highlights achievements of the Goštautai and Olshanski
Olshanski
families, particularly to Jonas Goštautas . Therefore, scholars concluded that it was sponsored by a member of these families. Scholars proposed Grand Chancellor Albertas Goštautas , Bishop Paweł Holszański , and Duke Olelkovich
Olelkovich

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Livonian Rhymed Chronicle
The LIVONIAN RHYMED CHRONICLE (German : Livländische Reimchronik) was a chronicle written in High German
High German
by an anonymous writer. It covers the period 1180 – 1343 and contains a wealth of detail about Livonia — modern Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
. CONTENTS * 1 The old Chronicle
Chronicle
* 2 The Younger Chronicle
Chronicle
* 3 References * 4 Editions * 5 Secondary literature THE OLD CHRONICLEThe Rhymed Chronicle
Chronicle
was composed to be read to the crusading knights of the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
during their meals. Its primary function was to inspire the knights and legitimise the Baltic crusades . As such, it is infused with elements of romance and exaggerated for the purpose of drama. However, this is debated by A. Murray
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King Of Poland
Poland
Poland
was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 9th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). The birth of Poland
Poland
as an independent nation coincides with the ascension of Duke Mieszko I and adoption of Christianity
Christianity
under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave , who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
, Przemysł II or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth
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Samogitia
SAMOGITIA or ŽEMAITIJA (Samogitian : Žemaitėjė; Lithuanian : Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania
Lithuania
. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania
Lithuania
. Its largest city is Šiauliai . Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect
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Tatars
The TATARS (Russian : татары); ( Tatar
Tatar
: татарлар) are Turkic -speaking people living in Asia and Europe. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (TaTaR). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary . More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages. The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
, established under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols
Mongols
moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol
Mongol
tribes toward the plains of Russia
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Scribe
A SCRIBE is a person who serves as a professional copyist , especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing . The profession, previously widespread across cultures, lost most of its importance and status with the advent of the printing press. The work of scribes can involve copying books and other texts, as well as secretarial and administrative duties, such as taking of dictation and keeping of business, judicial and, historical records for kings , nobles , temples , and cities . The profession has developed into public servants , journalists , accountants , typists , and lawyers . In societies with low literacy rates, street-corner letter-writers (and readers) may still be found providing the service
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Riga
RIGA (/ˈriːɡə/ ; Latvian : Rīga, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital and the largest city of Latvia
Latvia
. With 639,630 inhabitants (2016), Riga
Riga
is the largest city in the Baltic states
Baltic states
and home to one third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga , at the mouth of the Daugava . Riga's territory covers 307.17 square kilometres (118.60 square miles ) and lies between one and ten metres (3 feet 3 inches and 32 feet 10 inches) above sea level , on a flat and sandy plain. Riga
Riga
was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, noted for its Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture
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Mongol Empire
The MONGOL EMPIRE (Mongolian : Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen (help ·info ); Mongolian Cyrillic : Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; ; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles ) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia
Central Asia
, the Mongol Empire
Empire
eventually stretched from Central Europe
Central Europe
to the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
, extending northwards into Siberia
Siberia
, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, Indochina
Indochina
, and the Iranian plateau , and westwards as far as the Levant
Levant
and Arabia
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Fiefdom
A FIEF (/ˈfiːf/ ; Latin : feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure : these are typically known as FIEFS or FIEFDOMS. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, and tax farms
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Lithuanian Name
A Lithuanian personal name, like in mostly European cultures, consists of two main elements: the given name (vardas) followed by family name (pavardė). The usage of personal names in Lithuania
Lithuania
is generally governed (in addition to personal taste or family custom) by three major factors: civil law , canon law , and tradition. Lithuanian names always follow the rules of the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
. Lithuanian male names, as well as the rest of words, have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings (-as; -is), although the rules are not as rigid as Latvian names , which preserve masculine/feminine endings even for foreign names
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Polish Language
POLISH (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
. Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet , which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak
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Kazimieras Būga
KAZIMIERAS BūGA (Lithuanian pronunciation: ; November 6, 1879 – December 2, 1924) was a Lithuanian linguist and philologist . He was a professor of linguistics, who mainly worked on the Lithuanian language . He was born at Pažiegė , near Dusetos , then part of the Russian Empire . Appointed as personal secretary to Lithuanian linguist Kazimieras Jaunius he showed great interest in the subject, and during the period 1905-12 studied at Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University
. After that, he continued his work on Indo-European language under the supervision of Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay . He later moved to Köningsberg to continue his studies under the direction of Adalbert Bezzenberger
Adalbert Bezzenberger
. In 1914 he received a master's degree in linguistics
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