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Mindaugas
Mindaugas
Mindaugas
(German: Myndowen, Latin: Mindowe, Old East Slavic: Мендог, Belarusian: Міндоўг, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the only King of Lithuania. Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 treaty as an elder duke, and in 1236 as the leader of all the Lithuanians. The contemporary and modern sources discussing his ascent mention strategic marriages along with banishment or murder of his rivals. He extended his domain into regions southeast of Lithuania proper
Lithuania proper
during the 1230s and 1240s. In 1250 or 1251, during the course of internal power struggles, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic; this action enabled him to establish an alliance with the Livonian Order, a long-standing antagonist of the Lithuanians
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Scribe
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.[1] The profession, previously widespread across cultures, lost most of its prominence and status with the advent of the printing press. The work of scribes can involve copying manuscripts and other texts as well as secretarial and administrative duties such as the taking of dictation and keeping of business, judicial, and historical records for kings, nobles, temples, and cities
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Lithuania Proper
Lithuania proper (Latin: Lithuania propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Lithuanian: Didžioji Lietuva; Yiddish: ליטע‎, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and where the Lithuanian language was spoken.[1] The primary meaning is identical to the Duchy of Lithuania, a land around which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania evolved. The territory can be traced by Catholic Christian parishes established in pagan Baltic lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania subsequent to the Christianization of Lithuania in 1387
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Kazimieras Būga
Kazimieras Būga (Lithuanian pronunciation: [kɐˈzʲɪˈmʲiərɐs buːˈɡɐ]; November 6, 1879 – December 2, 1924) was a Lithuanian linguist and philologist. He was a professor of linguistics, who mainly worked on the Lithuanian language. He was born at Pažiegė, near Dusetos, then part of the Russian Empire. Appointed as personal secretary to Lithuanian linguist Kazimieras Jaunius he showed great interest in the subject, and during the period 1905-12 studied at Saint Petersburg State University. After that, he continued his work on Indo-European language under the supervision of Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay. He later moved to Köningsberg to continue his studies under the direction of Adalbert Bezzenberger. In 1914 he received a master's degree in linguistics.Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian, initiated by BūgaHis research of Lithuanian personal names led him into the study of place-names
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Bychowiec Chronicle
The Bychowiec Chronicle (also spelled Bykhovets, Bykovets or Bychovec) is an anonymous 16th-century chronicle of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Although one of the least reliable sources of the epoch,[1] it is considered the most extensive redaction of the Lithuanian Chronicles.Contents1 Origin and publication 2 Content 3 References 4 External linksOrigin and publication[edit] The chronicle was most probably authored between 1519 and 1542,[1] though some parts continued to be added until 1574.[2] Authors of the chronicle are not known. The text highlights achievements of the Goštautai and Olshanski families, particularly to Jonas Goštautas.[3] Therefore, scholars concluded that it was sponsored by a member of these families
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Papal Bull
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 Seal 4 Content 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit]Printed text of Pope
Pope
Leo X's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther, also known as Exsurge Domine, issued in June 1520Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes
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Hypatian Codex
The Hypatian Codex (also known as Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Belarusian: Іпацьеўскі летапіс; Russian: Ипатьевская летопись; Ukrainian: Іпатіївський літопис, Іпатський літопис, Літопис руський за Іпатським списком) is a compendium of three chronicles: the Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.[1] It is the most important source of historical data for southern Rus'.[2] The codex was rediscovered in what is today Ukraine in 1617 and then copied by monks in Kyiv in 1621[citation needed]. It was re-discovered yet again in the 18th century at the Hypatian Monastery of Kostroma
Kostroma
by the Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin. The codex is the second oldest surviving manuscript of the Primary Chronicle, after the Laurentian Codex. The Hypatian manuscript dates back to ca
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Livonian Rhymed Chronicle
The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle[1] (German: Livländische Reimchronik) was a chronicle written in High German by an anonymous writer. It covers the period 1180 – 1343 and contains a wealth of detail about Livonia — modern South Estonia and Latvia.Contents1 The old Chronicle 2 The Younger Chronicle 3 References 4 Editions 5 Secondary literatureThe old Chronicle[edit] The Rhymed Chronicle was composed to be read to the crusading knights of the Livonian Order during their meals. Its primary function was to inspire the knights and legitimise the Northern crusades. As such, it is infused with elements of romance and exaggerated for the purpose of drama. However, this is debated by A. Murray. He suggests that during mealtimes the knights were read sections of the bible or the word of God, so that they could 'receive spiritual as well as corporal nourishment'. There was little of this in the Chronicle
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Alexander Guagnini
Alexander
Alexander
(/ˈæləɡzˈændər/, /ˈæləɡzˈɑːndər/) is a male given name, and a less common surname. The name is derived from the Greek "Ἀλέξανδρος" (Aléxandroş), meaning "defender of men" from "αλεξω" (alexo), meaning "to defend, help" and "ανηρ" (aner), meaning "man" (genitive "ανδρος")
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Lithuanian Name
A Lithuanian personal name, like in mostly European cultures, consists of two main elements: the given name (vardas) followed by family name (pavardė). The usage of personal names in Lithuania
Lithuania
is generally governed (in addition to personal taste or family custom) by three major factors: civil law, canon law, and tradition. Lithuanian names always follow the rules of the Lithuanian language
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King Of Poland
Poland
Poland
was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). The birth of Poland
Poland
as an independent nation coincides with the ascension of Duke Mieszko I[4] and adoption of Christianity
Christianity
under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II
Przemysł II
or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth
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Samogitia
Samogitia
Samogitia
or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Lithuanian: Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai
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Livonian Order
The Livonian Order
Livonian Order
was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order,[1] formed in 1237. It was later a member of the Livonian Confederation, from 1435 to 1561.Contents1 History 2 Masters of the Livonian Order 3 Commanderies of the Livonian Order3.1 Estonia 3.2 Latvia4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The order was formed from the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword after their defeat by Samogitians
Samogitians
in 1236 at the Battle of Schaulen (Saule)
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Tatars
The Tatars
Tatars
(Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are a Turkic people[4] living mainly in Russia
Russia
and other Post-Soviet countries. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic[4] languages. The Mongol
Mongol
Empire, established under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols
Mongols
moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol
Mongol
tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'
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