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Mind Map
A MIND MAP is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is hierarchical and shows relationships among pieces of the whole. It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those. Mind maps can be drawn by hand, either as "rough notes" during a lecture, meeting or planning session, for example, or as higher quality pictures when more time is available. Mind maps are considered to be a type of spider diagram . A similar concept in the 1970s was "idea sun bursting "
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Organizational Chart
An ORGANIZATIONAL CHART (often called ORGANIZATION CHART, ORG CHART, ORGANIGRAM(ME), or ORGANOGRAM) is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. The term is also used for similar diagrams, for example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a group of languages. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Limitations * 4 Examples * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEWThe organization chart is a diagram showing graphically the relation of one official to another, or others, of a company. It is also used to show the relation of one department to another, or others, or of one function of an organization to another, or others. This chart is valuable in that it enables one to visualize a complete organization, by means of the picture it presents. A company's organizational chart typically illustrates relations between people within an organization
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Sociogram
A SOCIOGRAM is a graphic representation of social links that a person has. It is a graph drawing that plots the structure of interpersonal relations in a group situation. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEWSociograms were developed by Jacob L. Moreno
Jacob L. Moreno
to analyze choices or preferences within a group. They can diagram the structure and patterns of group interactions. A sociogram can be drawn on the basis of many different criteria: Social
Social
relations, channels of influence, lines of communication etc. * Moreno's sociograms* 1st Grade * 2nd Grade * 3rd Grade * 4th Grade * 5th Grade * 6th Grade * 7th Grade * 8th Grade Those points on a sociogram who have many choices are called Stars. Those with few or no choices are called isolates
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Timeline
A TIMELINE is a display of a list of events in chronological order. It is typically a graphic design showing a long bar labelled with dates alongside itself and usually events Timelines can use any time scale, depending on the subject and data. Most timelines use a linear scale, in which a unit of distance is equal to a set amount of time. This time scale is dependent on the events in the timeline. A timeline of evolution can be over millions of years, whereas a timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks can take place over minutes, and an explosion over milliseconds. While most timelines use a linear timescale, for very large or small timespans, logarithmic timelines use a logarithmic scale to depict time
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Object-role Modeling
OBJECT-ROLE MODELING (ORM) is used to model the semantics of a universe of discourse . ORM is often used for data modeling and software engineering . An object-role model uses graphical symbols that are based on first order predicate logic and set theory to enable the modeler to create an unambiguous definition of an arbitrary universe of discourse. Attribute free, the predicates of an ORM Model lend themselves to the analysis and design of graph database models in as much as ORM was originally conceived to benefit relational database design. The term "object-role model" was coined in the 1970s and ORM based tools have been used for more than 30 years – principally for data modeling
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Hyperbolic Tree
A HYPERBOLIC TREE (often shortened as HYPERTREE) is an information visualization and graph drawing method inspired by hyperbolic geometry . A basic hyperbolic tree. Nodes in focus are placed in the center and given more room, while out-of-focus nodes are compressed near the boundaries. Focusing on a different node brings it and its children to the center of the disk, while uninteresting portions of the tree are compressed. Displaying hierarchical data as a tree suffers from visual clutter as the number of nodes per level can grow exponentially. For a simple binary tree, the maximum number of nodes at a level n is 2n, while the number of nodes for larger trees grows much more quickly. Drawing the tree as a node-link diagram thus requires exponential amounts of space to be displayed. One approach is to use a hyperbolic tree, first introduced by Lamping et al. Hyperbolic trees employ hyperbolic space , which intrinsically has "more room" than Euclidean space
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Dendrogram
A DENDROGRAM (from Greek dendro "tree" and gramma "drawing") is a tree diagram frequently used to illustrate the arrangement of the clusters produced by hierarchical clustering . Dendrograms are often used in computational biology to illustrate the clustering of genes or samples, sometimes on top of heatmaps . CONTENTS * 1 Clustering example * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links CLUSTERING EXAMPLEFor a clustering example, suppose this data is to be clustered using Euclidean distance as the distance metric . Raw data The hierarchical clustering dendrogram would be as such: Traditional representation The top row of nodes represents data (individual observations), and the remaining nodes represent the clusters to which the data belong, with the arrows representing the distance (dissimilarity)
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Graph Drawing
GRAPH DRAWING is an area of mathematics and computer science combining methods from geometric graph theory and information visualization to derive two-dimensional depictions of graphs arising from applications such as social network analysis , cartography , linguistics , and bioinformatics . A drawing of a graph or NETWORK DIAGRAM is a pictorial representation of the vertices and edges of a graph. This drawing should not be confused with the graph itself: very different layouts can correspond to the same graph. In the abstract, all that matters is which pairs of vertices are connected by edges. In the concrete, however, the arrangement of these vertices and edges within a drawing affects its understandability, usability, fabrication cost, and aesthetics . The problem gets worse, if the graph changes over time by adding and deleting edges (dynamic graph drawing) and the goal is to preserve the user's mental map
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Tree Structure
A TREE STRUCTURE or TREE DIAGRAM is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree , even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom. A tree structure is conceptual, and appears in several forms. For a discussion of tree structures in specific fields, see Tree
Tree
(data structure) for computer science: insofar as it relates to graph theory, see tree (graph theory) , or also tree (set theory) . Other related pages are listed below
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Entity–relationship Model
An ENTITY–RELATIONSHIP MODEL (ER MODEL) describes inter-related things of interest in a specific domain of knowledge. An ER model is composed of entity types (which classify the things of interest) and specifies relationships that can exist between instances of those entity types. An entity–relationship diagram for an MMORPG using Chen's notation. In software engineering an ER model is commonly formed to represent things that a business needs to remember in order to perform business processes. Consequently, the ER model becomes an abstract data model that defines a data or information structure that can be implemented in a database , typically a relational database . Entity–relationship modeling was developed for database design by Peter Chen and published in a 1976 paper. However, variants of the idea existed previously
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Popular Psychology
POPULAR PSYCHOLOGY (sometimes shortened as POP PSYCHOLOGY or POP PSYCH) is the concepts and theories about human mental life and behavior that are purportedly based on psychology and that find credence among and pass muster with the populace. The concept is cognate with the human potential movement of the 1950s and 1960s. The term "pop psychologist" can be used to describe authors, consultants, lecturers, and entertainers who are widely perceived as being psychologists, not because of their academic credentials, but because they have projected that image or have been perceived in that way in response to their work. The term popular psychology can also be used when referring to the popular psychology industry, a sprawling network of everyday sources of information about human behavior
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Memory
MEMORY is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory
Memory
is vital to experiences and related to limbic systems , it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, nor personal identity (Eysenck, 2012). Often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working ) memory, and long-term memory (Baddely, 2007). This can be related to the neuron . The sensory processor allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to with various levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor
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Sunburst Chart
A PIE CHART (or a CIRCLE CHART) is a circular statistical graphic which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each slice (and consequently its central angle and area ), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are variations on the way it can be presented. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfair
William Playfair
's Statistical Breviary of 1801. Pie
Pie
charts are very widely used in the business world and the mass media. However, they have been criticized, and many experts recommend avoiding them, pointing out that research has shown it is difficult to compare different sections of a given pie chart, or to compare data across different pie charts
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Wicked Problem
A WICKED PROBLEM is a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize. The use of the term "wicked" here has come to denote resistance to resolution, rather than evil. Moreover, because of complex interdependencies , the effort to solve one aspect of a wicked problem may reveal or create other problems. The phrase was originally used in social planning . Its modern sense was introduced in 1967 by C. West Churchman in a guest editorial he wrote in the journal Management Science , responding to a previous use of the term by Horst Rittel . Churchman discussed the moral responsibility of operations research "to inform the manager in what respect our 'solutions' have failed to tame his wicked problems". Rittel and Melvin M
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Geovisualization
GEOVISUALIZATION or GEOVISUALISATION, short for Geographic Visualization, refers to a set of tools and techniques supporting the analysis of geospatial data through the use of interactive visualization . Like the related fields of scientific visualization and information visualization geovisualization emphasizes knowledge construction over knowledge storage or information transmission. To do this, geovisualization communicates geospatial information in ways that, when combined with human understanding, allow for data exploration and decision-making processes. Traditional, static maps have a limited exploratory capability; the graphical representations are inextricably linked to the geographical information beneath. GIS
GIS
and geovisualization allow for more interactive maps; including the ability to explore different layers of the map, to zoom in or out, and to change the visual appearance of the map, usually on a computer display
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Treemapping
In information visualization and computing , TREEMAPPING is a method for displaying hierarchical data using nested figures, usually rectangles. CONTENTS * 1 Main idea * 2 Tiling algorithms * 3 Rectangular treemaps * 4 Convex treemaps * 4.1 Orthoconvex treemaps * 5 Other treemaps * 6 History * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links MAIN IDEATreemaps display hierarchical (tree-structured ) data as a set of nested rectangles. Each branch of the tree is given a rectangle, which is then tiled with smaller rectangles representing sub-branches. A leaf node's rectangle has an area proportional to a specified dimension of the data . Often the leaf nodes are colored to show a separate dimension of the data. When the color and size dimensions are correlated in some way with the tree structure, one can often easily see patterns that would be difficult to spot in other ways, such as if a certain color is particularly relevant
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