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Mince Pie
A mince pie is a sweet pie of British origin, filled with a mixture of dried fruits and spices called "mincemeat", that is traditionally served during the Christmas season in the English-speaking world, excluding the USA. Its ingredients are traceable to the 13th century, when returning European crusaders brought with them Middle Eastern recipes containing meats, fruits and spices. The early mince pie was known by several names, including "mutton pie", "shrid pie" and "Christmas pie". Typically its ingredients were a mixture of minced meat, suet, a range of fruits, and spices such as cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Served around Christmas, the savoury Christmas pie (as it became known) was associated with supposed Catholic "idolatry" and during the English Civil War
English Civil War
was frowned on by the Puritan
Puritan
authorities
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William Henry Hunt (painter)
William Henry Hunt (London 28 March 1790 – 10 February 1864), was an English watercolour painter.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Society of Painters in Water Colours 3 Painting style 4 Death 5 References and sources 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Hunt was born at 8 Old Belton Street, now 7 Endell Street,[2] and was a resident of Marchmont Street, London and was apprenticed in about 1805 to John Varley, the landscape-painter, with whom he remained five or six years. He exhibited three oil pictures at the Royal Academy in 1807. Society of Painters in Water Colours[edit] He became connected with the Society of Painters in Water Colours at its beginning, and was elected an associate in 1824 and a full member in 1827. Until the year of his death, he was one of the most prolific contributors to the Society's exhibitions
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Raisin
A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape,[1] with "sultana" being a golden-colored dried grape, and "currant" being a dried small Black Corinth
Black Corinth
seedless[2] grape.[3]Contents1 Etymology 2 Varieties 3 Nutrition 4 Toxicity in pets 5 Sugars5.1 Grades in the United States6 Raisin
Raisin
production6.1 Pre-treatment 6.2 Drying 6.3 Post-drying processes 6.4 Nutrition and health7 See also 8 References 9 Further readingEtymology[edit] The word "raisin" dates back to Middle English
Middle English
and is a loanword from Old French; in modern French, raisin means "grape", while a dried grape is a raisin sec, or "dry grape"
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America
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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John Brand (antiquarian)
John Brand (19 August 1744 – 11 September 1806) was an English antiquarian and Church of England clergyman. He was author of Observations on Popular Antiquities: including the whole of Mr Bourne's “Antiquitates Vulgares,” with addenda to every chapter of that work.[1] Life[edit] Born in Washington, County Durham, he was educated at the Royal Grammar School and Lincoln College, Oxford. Initially apprenticed as a cordwainer, he obtained a degree from Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1775 and was appointed perpetual curate of Cramlington. Brand was appointed Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1784 and was annually re-elected until his death. He was buried in the nearby churchyard of St Mary-at-Hill. When this churchyard was cleared, his remains were moved to West Norwood Cemetery within the enclosure that the church acquired there in 1847. Works[edit] Brand wrote Observations on the popular antiquities of Great Britain: Including the Whole of Mr
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Elizabethan
The Elizabethan era
Elizabethan era
is the epoch in the Tudor period
Tudor period
of the history of England
England
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history
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Jacobean Era
The Jacobean era
Jacobean era
refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland
Scotland
(1567–1625), who also inherited the crown of
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Gervase Markham
Gervase or Gervasius may refer to: Gervase or Gervais (other), name of multiple people Gervase of Canterbury (c. 1141 – c. 1210), English chronicler Gervase de Cornhill (c. 1110 – c. 1183), Anglo-Norman royal official and sheriff Gervase of Ebstorf, author of the Ebstorf Map created around 1234; possibly the same man as Gervase of Tilbury Gervase de Peyer (born 1926), English clarinetist and conductor Saint Gervase (d. 7th century), a bishop of Besançon Gervase of Canterbury (c. 1141 – c. 1210), English chronicler Gervase of Tilbury
Gervase of Tilbury
(c. 1150 – c
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Veal
Veal
Veal
is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal
Veal
can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds[1] who are not used for breeding.[2] Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle. Some methods or aspects of veal production are controversial due to animal welfare concerns.Contents1 Types 2 Culinary uses 3 Production3.1 At birth 3.2 Housing 3.3 Feeding 3.4 Health4 Controversy4.1 Animal welfare4.1.1 Restricted space 4.1.2 Abnormal gut development 4.1.3 Abnormal behaviours 4.1.4 Increased disease susceptibility 4.1.5 Veal
Veal
crates4.1.5.1 Cruelty to calves4.2 Drug use5 Crate bans5.1 Europe 5.2 United States6 See also 7 Further reading 8 References 9 External linksTypes[edit]Free-raised calvesThere are several types of veal, although some terminology varies by country
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Goose
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae. This group comprises the genera Anser (the grey geese) and Branta
Branta
(the black geese). Chen, a genus comprising 'white geese', is sometimes used to refer to a group of species that are more commonly placed within Anser. Some other birds, mostly related to the shelducks, have "goose" as part of their names. More distantly related members of the family Anatidae
Anatidae
are swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, which are smaller.Contents1 Etymology 2 True geese and their relatives 3 Other birds called "geese" 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEtymology[edit] Canada goose
Canada goose
goslingThe word "goose" is a direct descendent of Proto-Indo-European root, *ghans-
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Beef Tongue
Beef
Beef
tongue or neat's tongue is a dish made of the tongue of a cow. Beef
Beef
tongue is very high in fat, contributing up to 72% of its caloric content.[1][2] Some countries, including Canada
Canada
and specifically the province of Alberta, export large quantities of beef tongue.Contents1 Preparation 2 In cuisines 3 See also 4 ReferencesPreparation[edit] Tongue
Tongue
and pancetta with mâche Beef
Beef
tongue is often seasoned with onion and other spices, and then placed in a pot to boil. After it has cooked the skin is removed. Pickled
Pickled
tongue is often used by the preparer because it is already spiced. origin:France
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Mace (spice)
Nutmeg
Nutmeg
refers to the seed or ground spice of several species of the Myristica
Myristica
genus. Myristica
Myristica
fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg and mace
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John Selden
John Selden
John Selden
(16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist and a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution[1] and scholar of Jewish law.[2] He was known as a polymath showing true intellectual depth and breadth; John Milton
John Milton
hailed Selden in 1644 as "the chief of learned men reputed in this land."[3][4]Contents1 Early life 2 Legal scholar into politics 3 Parliamentarian 4 Last years 5 Works5.1 English history and antiquities 5.2 Literature and archaeology of the Near East 5.3 Studies on Judaism 5.4 International law 5.5 Posthumous publications6 Views 7 Commemoration 8 Influence 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEarly life[edit] He was born at Salvington, in the parish of West Tarring, West Sussex (now part of the town of Worthing), and was baptised at St Andrew's, the parish church
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Brown Sugar
Brown sugar
Brown sugar
is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content (natural brown sugar), or it is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar (commercial brown sugar). The Codex Alimentarius
Codex Alimentarius
requires brown sugar to contain at least 88% of sucrose plus invert sugar.[1] Commercial brown sugar contains from 4.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.5% molasses (dark brown sugar) based on total volume.[2] Based on total weight, regular commercial brown sugar contains up to 10% molasses.[3] The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as "soft." The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling
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Puritans
The Puritans
Puritans
were English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants
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Marchamont Needham
Marchamont Nedham, also Marchmont and Needham (1620 – November 1678) was a journalist, publisher and pamphleteer during the English Civil War, who wrote official news and propaganda for both sides of the conflict. A "highly productive propagandist,"[1] he was significant in the evolution of early English journalism, and has been strikingly (if hyperbolically) called the "press agent" of Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Civil War2.1 Mercurius Britanicus 2.2 Mercurius Pragmaticus3 Interregnum3.1 Mercurius Politicus4 Restoration 5 Style 6 Character assessment 7 Selected works by Nedham 8 Notes 9 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Nedham was raised by his mother, the innkeeper of The George Inn, Burford, Oxfordshire, after his father's death. His stepfather was the vicar of Burford
Burford
and teacher at the local school.[3] He was educated at All Souls College of Oxford University
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