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Military Discharge
A military discharge is given when a member of the armed forces is released from his or her obligation to serve. Each country's military has different types of discharge. They are generally based on whether the person completed their training and then fully and satisfactorily completed their term of service or not. Other types of discharge are based on factors like the quality of the person's service; whether their service had to be ended prematurely due to humanitarian or medical reasons; whether the person had been found to have drug or alcohol dependency issues and whether they were complying with treatment and counseling; or whether the person had demerits or punishments for infractions or were convicted of any crimes
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Gun Control Act Of 1968
The Gun Control Act of 1968
Gun Control Act of 1968
(GCA or GCA68) is a U.S. federal law that regulates the firearms industry and firearms owners. It primarily focuses on regulating interstate commerce in firearms by generally prohibiting interstate firearms transfers except among licensed manufacturers, dealers and importers. The GCA was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
on October 22, 1968, and is Title I of the U.S. federal firearms laws. The National Firearms Act
National Firearms Act
of 1934 (NFA) is Title II
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Coast Guard Court Of Criminal Appeals
The Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals (CGCCA) is the intermediate appellate court for criminal convictions in the U.S. Coast Guard. It is located in Washington, DC[1]. The Court was established under Article 66, Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), by the Judge
Judge
Advocate General of the Coast Guard. The Court is normally composed of five appellate military judges, organized in panels of three for consideration of referred cases
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British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces,[nb 3] also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces or the Armed Forces of the Crown, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They also promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid.[7] Since the formation of a Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
in 1707 (later succeeded by the United Kingdom),[8] the armed forces have seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the First World War, and the Second World War
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United States Department Of Defense
742,000 (civilian) 1,300,000 (active duty military) 826,000 (National Guard and reserve): 2.87 million total[1] (2016)Annual budget US$530.1 billion (2010)[2] US$549.1 billion (2011)[3] US$553.0 billion (est. 2012) US$496.1 billion (2015)[4] US$534.3 billion (base FY2016)[4]Department executivesJim Mattis, Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, Deputy SecretaryChild agenciesU.S. Department of the Army U.S. Department of the Navy U.S. Department of the Air ForceWebsite www.defense.govThe Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of DefenseThe Department of Defense (DoD,[5] USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces
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Commissioned Officer
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" includes non-commissioned officers and warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term "officer" almost always refers to commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state of a sovereign nation-state.Contents1 Numbers 2 Legal relevance 3 Terminological details in the U.S. 4 Commissioned officers4.1 United Kingdom 4.2 United States4.2.1 Other U.S. officer commissioning programs, active and discontinued4.3 Commonwealth of Nations5 Non-commissioned officers 6 Warrant officers 7 Officer ranks and accommodation 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksNumbers[edit]An Indonesian army
Indonesian army
officer serving as a ceremonial field commanderThe proportion of officers varies greatly
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Appeal
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision. Appeals function both as a process for error correction as well as a process of clarifying and interpreting law.[1] Although appellate courts have existed for thousands of years, common law countries did not incorporate an affirmative right to appeal into their jurisprudence until the 19th century.[2]Contents1 History 2 Appellate procedure 3 Appellate courts 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Appellate courts and other systems of error correction have existed for many millennia
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Title 10 Of The United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code
United States Code
outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.[1] It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense. Each of the five subtitles deals with a separate aspect or component of the armed services.Subtitle A—General Military Law, including Uniform Code of Military Justice Subtitle B—Army Subtitle C—Navy and Marine Corps Subtitle D—Air Force Subtitle E—Reserve ComponentsThe current Title 10 was the result of an overhaul and renumbering of the former Title 10 and Title 34 into one title by an act of Congress on 10 August 1956. References[edit]^ "United States Code". Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Retrieved November 21, 2015. External links[edit]U.S. Code Title 10, via United States Government Printing Office U.S
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Army Court Of Criminal Appeals
In the United States military, the Army Court of Criminal Appeals (ACCA) is an appellate court that reviews certain court martial convictions of Army personnel.Contents1 Jurisdiction 2 History 3 Operation 4 References 5 External linksJurisdiction[edit] In the United States, Courts-martial are conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), 10 U.S.C. §§ 801–946, and the Manual for Courts-Martial. If the trial results in a conviction, the case is reviewed by the convening authority – the person who referred the case for trial by court-martial. The convening authority has discretion to mitigate the findings and sentence. If the sentence, as approved by the convening authority, includes death, a bad-conduct discharge, a dishonorable discharge, dismissal of an officer, or confinement for one year or more, the case is reviewed by an intermediate court
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Air Force Court Of Criminal Appeals
The Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals (AFCCA) is an independent appellate judicial body authorized by Congress and established by the Judge Advocate General of the Air Force pursuant to the exclusive authority under 10 U.S.C. § 866(a). The Court hears and decides appeals of United States Air Force
United States Air Force
court-martial convictions and appeals pendente lite. Its appellate judges are assigned to the Court by The Judge Advocate General
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Department Of The Army
The Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency within which the United States Army
United States Army
is organized, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has statutory authority under 10 U.S.C. § 3013 to conduct its affairs and to prescribe regulations for its government, subject to the limits of the law, and the directions of the Secretary of Defense and the President. The Secretary of the Army is a civilian official appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The highest-ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Army, who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
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Trial De Novo
In law, the expression trial de novo means a "new trial" by a different tribunal (de novo is a Latin expression meaning "afresh", "anew", "beginning again", hence the literal meaning "new trial"). A trial de novo is usually ordered by an appellate court when the original trial failed to make a determination in a manner dictated by law.Contents1 Common law1.1 United Kingdom 1.2 United States2 References 3 See alsoCommon law[edit] In common law systems, one feature that distinguishes an appellate proceeding from a trial de novo is that new evidence may not ordinarily be presented in an appeal, though there are rare instances when it may be allowed—usually evidence that came to light only after the trial and could not, in all diligence, have been presented in the lower court
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United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States
United States
of America[1] (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States
United States
Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States
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Court Of Appeals For The Armed Forces
The United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
(in case citations, C.A.A.F. or USCAAF) is an Article I court that exercises worldwide appellate jurisdiction over members of the United States Armed Forces on active duty and other persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice. The court is composed of five civilian judges appointed for 15-year terms by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate
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Discretionary Review
Discretionary review is the authority appellate courts have to decide which appeals they will consider from among the cases submitted to them. This offers the judiciary a filter on what types of cases are appealed, because judges have to consider in advance which cases will be accepted. The appeals court will then be able to decide substantive cases with the lowest opportunity cost.[1] The opposite of discretionary review is mandatory review, in which appellate courts must consider all appeals submitted. The advantage to discretionary review is that it enables an appellate court to focus its limited resources on developing a coherent body of case law, or at least it is able to focus on making decisions in consistent fashion (in jurisdictions where case law is not recognized)
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Death Penalty
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Etymologically, the term capital (lit
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