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Mikhail Bakunin
MIKHAIL ALEXANDROVICH BAKUNIN (/bəˈkuːnɪn/ ; Russian : Михаил Александрович Бакунин; IPA: ; 30 May 1814 – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist , and founder of collectivist anarchism . He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism , and one of the principal founders of the social anarchist tradition. Bakunin's enormous prestige as an activist made him one of the most famous ideologues in Europe, and he gained substantial influence among radicals throughout Russia and Europe. Bakunin grew up in Pryamukhino , a family estate in Tver Governorate , where he moved to study philosophy and began to read the French encyclopédistes , leading to enthusiasm for the philosophy of Fichte . From Fichte, Bakunin went on to immerse himself in the works of Hegel , the most influential thinker among German intellectuals at the time
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19th Century Philosophy
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
influencing new generations of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it validated strong emotion as an authentic not of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe. Key ideas that sparked changes in philosophy were the fast progress of science; evolution , as postulated by Vanini , Diderot , Lord Monboddo , Erasmus Darwin
Erasmus Darwin
, Lamarck , Goethe , and Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
; and what might now be called emergent order, such as the free market of Adam Smith
Adam Smith
within nation states
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Ludwig Feuerbach
LUDWIG ANDREAS VON FEUERBACH (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity
Christianity
, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. An associate of Left Hegelian circles, Feuerbach advocated liberalism, atheism , and materialism . Many of his philosophical writings offered a critical analysis of religion. His thought was influential in the development of historical materialism , where he is often recognized as a bridge between Hegel
Hegel
and Marx
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Tver Governorate
Coordinates : 57°N 36°E / 57°N 36°E / 57; 36 Tver
Tver
Governorate Тверская губерния Governorate of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1796–1929Coat of arms Map of the governorate (1800) CAPITAL Tver
Tver
HISTORY • Established 12 December 1796 • Disestablished 12 August 1929 POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS twelve uyezdsTVER GOVERNORATE (Russian : Тверская губерния, Tverskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya ) of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, which existed from 1796 until 1929. Its seat was in Tver
Tver

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Western Philosophy
WESTERN PHILOSOPHY is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world
Western world
. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture
Western culture
, beginning with Hellenic (i.e. Greek) philosophy of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales
Thales
(c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated from the Hellenic: philosophia (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν philein, "to love" and σοφία sophia , "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers , were all intellectual endeavors
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (/ˈheɪɡəl/ ; German: ; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism . He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well. Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism sometimes termed "absolute idealism ", in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. His account of the master–slave dialectic has been highly influential, especially in 20th-century France
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Post-anarchism
POST-ANARCHISM or POSTANARCHISM is an anarchist philosophy that employs post-structuralist and postmodernist approaches (the term POST-STRUCTURALIST ANARCHISM is used as well, so as not to suggest having moved beyond anarchism). Post-anarchism
Post-anarchism
is not a single coherent theory, but rather refers to the combined works of any number of post-structuralists such as Michel Foucault
Michel Foucault
, Gilles Deleuze
Gilles Deleuze
, Jacques Lacan ; postmodern feminists such as Judith Butler
Judith Butler
; and post-Marxists such as Ernesto Laclau , Chantal Mouffe , Jacques Rancière , alongside those of classical anarchist and libertarian philosophers such as Zhuang Zhou , Emma Goldman , Max Stirner , and Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche

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Philosophical Anarchism
PHILOSOPHICAL ANARCHISM is an anarchist school of thought which holds that the state lacks moral legitimacy while not supporting violence to eliminate it. Though philosophical anarchism does not necessarily imply any action or desire for the elimination of the State, philosophical anarchists do not believe that they have an obligation or duty to obey the State, or conversely, that the State has a right to command. Philosophical anarchism
Philosophical anarchism
is a component especially of individualist anarchism . Scholar Michael Freeden identifies four broad types of individualist anarchism. He says the first is the type associated with William Godwin that advocates self-government with a "progressive rationalism that included benevolence to others." The second type is egoism , most associated with Max Stirner
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Left Anarchism
The terms LEFT ANARCHISM and LEFT-WING ANARCHISM distinguish collectivist anarchism from laissez-faire anarchism and right-libertarian philosophies. They refer to philosophies which posit a future society in which private property is replaced by reciprocity and non-hierarchical society. The term left anarchism is sometimes used synonymously with libertarian socialism , left-libertarianism , or socialist anarchism . More traditional anarchists typically discourage the concept of "left-wing " theories of anarchism on grounds of redundancy, that it lends legitimacy to the notion that anarchism is compatible with capitalism or nationalism . Ulrike Heider , a syndicalist , categorized anarchism into left anarchism, right anarchism (anarcho-capitalism ), and green anarchism
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Characters Of Lost
The CHARACTERS from the American drama /adventure television series LOST were created by Damon Lindelof and J. J. Abrams . The series follows the lives of plane crash survivors on a mysterious tropical island , after a commercial passenger jet from the fictional Oceanic Airlines crashes somewhere in the South Pacific. Each episode typically features a primary storyline on the island as well as a secondary storyline, a flashback from another point in a character's life. Out of the 324 people on board Oceanic Flight 815, there are 71 initial survivors (70 humans and one dog) spread across the three sections of the plane crash. The opening season featured 14 regular speaking roles, making it the largest cast in American prime time television when it premiered
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Russian Philosophy
RUSSIAN PHILOSOPHY includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement. While most authors listed below are primarily philosophers, also included here are some Russian fiction writers, such as Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky , who are also known as philosophers. Russian philosophy as a separate entity started its development in the 19th century, defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group included Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the early founders of eurasianism . The discussion of Russia's place in the world has since become the most characteristic feature of Russian philosophy
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Anarcho-primitivism
ANARCHO-PRIMITIVISM is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization . According to anarcho-primitivism, the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence gave rise to social stratification , coercion , alienation , and population growth . Anarcho-primitivists advocate a return of non-"civilized" ways of life through deindustrialization , abolition of the division of labor or specialization , and abandonment of large-scale organization technologies . Many traditional anarchists reject the critique of civilization while some, such as Wolfi Landstreicher, endorse the critique but do not consider themselves anarcho-primitivists. Anarcho-primitivists are often distinguished by their focus on the praxis of achieving a feral state of being through "rewilding "
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (Russian : Россійская Имперія) was an empire that existed from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War , until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south
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Bern
The city of BERN (German: ( listen )) or BERNE (French: ; Italian : Berna ; Romansh : Berna ; Bernese German : Bärn ) is the de facto capital of Switzerland , referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city ". With a population of 141,762 (November 2016), Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is also the capital of the canton of Bern , the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons. The official language in Bern is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German , but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German
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