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Middle Platonism
MIDDLE PLATONISM is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy , lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus
Plotinus
in the 3rd century. Middle Platonism
Platonism
absorbed many doctrines from the rival Peripatetic and Stoic schools. The pre-eminent philosopher in this period, Plutarch
Plutarch
(c. 45-120), defended the freedom of the will and the immortality of the soul. He sought to show that God, in creating the world, had transformed matter, as the receptacle of evil , into the divine soul of the world, where it continued to operate as the source of all evil. God is a transcendent being, which operates through divine intermediaries, which are the gods and daemons of popular religion
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Evil
EVIL, in a general context is the absence or opposite of that which is described as being good . Often, evil denotes profound immorality . In certain religious contexts, evil has been described as a supernatural force. Definitions of evil vary, as does the analysis of its motives. However, elements that are commonly associated with evil involve unbalanced behavior involving anger , revenge , fear , hatred , psychological trauma , expediency, selfishness , ignorance , or neglect . In cultures with an Abrahamic religious influence, evil is usually perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good , in which good should prevail and evil should be defeated
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Stoicism
STOICISM is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Stoicism
Stoicism
is predominantly a philosophy of personal ethics which is informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to happiness for humans is found in accepting this moment as it presents itself, by not allowing ourselves to be controlled by our desire for pleasure or our fear of pain, by using our minds to understand the world around us and to do our part in nature's plan, and by working together and treating others in a fair and just manner. It was founded in Athens
Athens
by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC
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Peripatetic School
The PERIPATETIC SCHOOL was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
. Its teachings derived from its founder, Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 BC), and peripatetic is an adjective ascribed to his followers. The school dates from around 335 BC when Aristotle
Aristotle
began teaching in the Lyceum . It was an informal institution whose members conducted philosophical and scientific inquiries. After the middle of the 3rd century BC, the school fell into a decline, and it was not until the Roman era
Roman era
that there was a revival. Later members of the school concentrated on preserving and commenting on Aristotle\'s works rather than extending them, and it eventually died out in the 3rd century AD
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Definist Fallacy
The DEFINIST FALLACY is a logical fallacy , coined by William Frankena in 1939, that involves the definition of one property in terms of another. The philosopher William Frankena first used the term definist fallacy in a paper published in the British analytic philosophy journal Mind in 1939. In this article he generalized and critiqued G. E. Moore 's naturalistic fallacy , which argued that good cannot be defined by natural properties, as a broader confusion caused by attempting to define a term using non-synonymous properties. Frankena argued that the naturalistic fallacy is a complete misnomer because it is neither limited to naturalistic properties nor necessarily a fallacy. On the first word (naturalistic), he noted that Moore rejected defining good in non-natural as well as natural terms
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Daemon (mythology)
DæMON is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek DAIMōN (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which refers to the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic
Hellenistic
religion and philosophy . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 In mythology and philosophy * 3.1 Socrates
Socrates
* 3.2 Plato
Plato
and Proclus * 4 Categories * 5 See also * 5.1 In fiction * 6 Notes * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYDaimons were the souls of men of the golden age acting as tutelary deities according to entry δαίμων at Liddell "good beings who dispense riches…, they remain invisible, known only by their acts". The daimon of venerated heroes , were localized by the construction of shrines, so as not to wander restlessly, and were believed to confer protection and good fortune on those offering their respects
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Transcendence (religion)
In religion , TRANSCENDENCE refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all physical laws. This is contrasted with immanence , where a god is said to be fully present in the physical world and thus accessible to creatures in various ways. In religious experience transcendence is a state of being that has overcome the limitations of physical existence and by some definitions has also become independent of it. This is typically manifested in prayer , séance , meditation , psychedelics and paranormal "visions". It is affirmed in various religious traditions' concept of the divine , which contrasts with the notion of a god (or, the Absolute ) that exists exclusively in the physical order (immanentism ), or indistinguishable from it (pantheism ). Transcendence can be attributed to the divine not only in its being, but also in its knowledge
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The School Of Athens
THE SCHOOL OF ATHENS (Italian : Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael
Raphael
. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello , in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican . The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens, representing Philosophy, was probably the second painting to be finished there, after La Disputa (Theology) on the opposite wall, and the Parnassus (Literature). The picture has long been seen as "Raphael's masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance"
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Raphael
RAFFAELLO SANZIO DA URBINO (Italian: ; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520), known as RAPHAEL (/ˈræfeɪəl/ , US : /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/ ), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance
High Renaissance
. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period
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Aristotle
ARISTOTLE (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced ; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira , Chalkidice , on the northern periphery of Classical Greece
Greece
. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which from his teachings inherited almost its entire lexicon, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost any form of knowledge known to the modern world. His father, Nicomachus , died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato\'s Academy in Athens
Athens
and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC)
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Zeno Of Citium
ZENO OF CITIUM (/ˈziːnoʊ/ ; Greek : Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus
Cyprus
, and probably of Phoenician descent. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens
Athens
from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics , Stoicism
Stoicism
laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue
Virtue
in accordance with Nature
Nature
. It proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy from the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period through to the Roman era
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Philo Of Larissa
PHILO OF LARISSA (Greek : Φίλων ὁ Λαρισσαῖος Philon ho Larissaios; 154/3–84/3 BC ) was a Greek philosopher . He was a pupil of Clitomachus , whom he succeeded as head of the Academy . During the Mithridatic wars which would see the destruction of the Academy, he travelled to Rome
Rome
where Cicero
Cicero
heard him lecture. None of his writings survive. He was an Academic sceptic , like Clitomachus and Carneades before him, but he offered a more moderate view of scepticism than that of his teachers, permitting provisional beliefs without certainty. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFE Philo
Philo
was born in Larissa
Larissa
in 154/3 BC
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Neopythagoreanism
NEOPYTHAGOREANISM (or NEO-PYTHAGOREANISM) was a school of Hellenistic philosophy which revived Pythagorean doctrines . Neopythagoreanism was influenced by Middle Platonism and in turn influenced Neoplatonism . It originated in the 1st century BCE and flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. The 1911 Britannica describes Neopythagoreanism as "a link in the chain between the old and the new" within Hellenistic philosophy. As such, it contributed to the doctrine of monotheism as it emerged during Late Antiquity (among other things influencing early Christianity ). Central to Neopythagorean thought was the concept of a soul and its inherent desire for a unio mystica with the divine. The word "Neopythagoreanism" is a modern (19th century) term, coined as a parallel of "Neoplatonism"
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Theory Of Forms
The THEORY OF FORMS or THEORY OF IDEAS is Plato
Plato
's argument that non-physical (but substantial ) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality. When used in this sense, the word form or idea is often capitalized. Plato
Plato
speaks of these entities only through the characters (primarily Socrates
Socrates
) of his dialogues who sometimes suggest that these Forms are the only objects of study that can provide knowledge; thus even apart from the very controversial status of the theory, Plato's own views are much in doubt. However, the theory is considered a classical solution to the problem of universals . The early Greek concept of form precedes attested philosophical usage and is represented by a number of words mainly having to do with vision, sight, and appearance. The words, εἶδος (eidos) and ἰδέα (idea) come from the Indo-European root *weid-, "see"
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Euthyphro Dilemma
The EUTHYPHRO DILEMMA is found in Plato
Plato
's dialogue Euthyphro , in which Socrates
Socrates
asks Euthyphro , "Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?" (10a ) The dilemma has had a major effect on the philosophical theism of the monotheistic religions , but in a modified form: "Is what is morally good commanded by God
God
because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?" Ever since Plato's original discussion, this question has presented a problem for some theists, though others have thought it a false dilemma , and it continues to be an object of theological and philosophical discussion today
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