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Middle Platonism
Middle Platonism
Platonism
is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
under Plotinus in the 3rd century. Middle Platonism
Platonism
absorbed many doctrines from the rival Peripatetic and Stoic schools. The pre-eminent philosopher in this period, Plutarch
Plutarch
(c. 45–120), defended the freedom of the will and the immortality of the soul. He sought to show that God, in creating the world, had transformed matter, as the receptacle of evil, into the divine soul of the world, where it continued to operate as the source of all evil. God is a transcendent being, which operates through divine intermediaries, which are the gods and daemons of popular religion
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Zeno Of Citium
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium
(/ˈziːnoʊ/; Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
thinker[3] from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.[4] Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens
Athens
from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism
Stoicism
laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue
Virtue
in accordance with Nature. It proved very popular, and flourished as one of the major schools of philosophy from the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period through to the Roman era.Contents1 Life 2 Philosophy2.1 Logic 2.2 Physics 2.3 Ethics3 Works 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Zeno was born c
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Transcendence (religion)
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws. This is contrasted with immanence, where a god is said to be fully present in the physical world and thus accessible to creatures in various ways. In religious experience transcendence is a state of being that has overcome the limitations of physical existence and by some definitions has also become independent of it. This is typically manifested in prayer, séance, meditation, psychedelics and paranormal "visions". It is affirmed in various religious traditions' concept of the divine, which contrasts with the notion of a god (or, the Absolute) that exists exclusively in the physical order (immanentism), or indistinguishable from it (pantheism). Transcendence can be attributed to the divine not only in its being, but also in its knowledge
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Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Definist Fallacy
The definist fallacy is a logical fallacy, coined by William Frankena in 1939, that involves the definition of one property in terms of another.[1] The philosopher William Frankena
William Frankena
first used the term definist fallacy in a paper published in the British analytic philosophy journal Mind in 1939.[2] In this article he generalized and critiqued G. E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy, which argued that good cannot be defined by natural properties, as a broader confusion caused by attempting to define a term using non-synonymous properties.[3] Frankena argued that the naturalistic fallacy is a complete misnomer because it is neither limited to naturalistic properties nor necessarily a fallacy
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Peripatetic School
The Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece. Its teachings derived from its founder, Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 BC),[1] and peripatetic is an adjective ascribed to his followers. The school dates from around 335 BC when Aristotle
Aristotle
began teaching in the Lyceum. It was an informal institution whose members conducted philosophical and scientific inquiries. After the middle of the 3rd century BC, the school fell into a decline, and it was not until the Roman era
Roman era
that there was a revival. Later members of the school concentrated on preserving and commenting on Aristotle's works rather than extending them; it died out in the 3rd century AD. The study of Aristotle's works continued by scholars who were called Peripatetics through Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance
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Stoicism
Stoicism
Stoicism
is a school of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Zeno of Citium founded stoicism in Athens
Athens
in the early 3rd century BC. It was heavily influenced by certain teachings of Socrates, while stoic physics are largely drawn from the teachings of the philosopher Heraclitus
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Divine Soul (other)
Divine soul in kabbalah is the source of good inclination and Godly desires. Divine soul may also refer to:Ātman (Hinduism), inner self or soul Ātman (Buddhism), the concept of self Jīva (Jainism), a philosophical term to identify the soul Divine soul, concept in Sufi cosmologySee also[edit]SoulThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Divine soul. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Daemon (mythology)
Dæmon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
daimōn (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"),[1] which refers to the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic
Hellenistic
religion and philosophy.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 In mythology and philosophy3.1 Socrates 3.2 Plato
Plato
and Proclus4 Categories 5 See also5.1 In fiction6 Notes 7 External linksEtymology[edit] Daemon comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word δαίμων, which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit
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Philo Of Larissa
Larissa
Larissa
(Greek: Λάρισα [ˈlarisa]) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly
Thessaly
region, the fifth-most populous in Greece
Greece
and capital of the Larissa
Larissa
regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Athens
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The School Of Athens
The School of Athens
The School of Athens
(Italian: Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican
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Plato's Tripartite Theory Of Soul
Plato's tripartite theory of soul
Plato's tripartite theory of soul
is a theory of psyche proposed by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
in his treatise the Republic, and also with the chariot allegory in Phaedrus. In Republic, Plato asserted that the ψυχή (psyche) is composed of three parts; the λογιστικόν (logistykon, logical), the θυμοειδές (thymoeides, spirited) and the ἐπιθυμητικόν (epithymetikon, appetitive). These three parts of the ψυχή also correspond to the three classes of a society.[1] Whether in a city or an individual, δικαιοσύνη (dikaiosyne, justice) is declared to be the state of the whole in which each part fulfills its function without attempting to interfere in the functions of others.[2] The function of the ἐπιθυμητικόν is to produce and seek pleasure. The function of the λογιστικός is to gently rule through the love of learning
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Neopythagoreanism
Neopythagoreanism
Neopythagoreanism
(or Neo-Pythagoreanism) was a school of Hellenistic philosophy which revived Pythagorean doctrines. Neopythagoreanism
Neopythagoreanism
was influenced by Middle Platonism
Middle Platonism
and in turn influenced Neoplatonism. It originated in the 1st century BCE and flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. The 1911 Britannica
1911 Britannica
describes Neopythagoreanism
Neopythagoreanism
as "a link in the chain between the old and the new" within Hellenistic philosophy. As such, it contributed to the doctrine of monotheism as it emerged during Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(among other things influencing early Christianity)
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Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero[n 1] (/ˈsɪsəroʊ/; Classical Latin: [ˈmaːr.kʊs ˈtʊl.lɪ.ʊs ˈkɪ.kɛ.roː]; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[2][3] His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in
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Numenius Of Apamea
Numenius of Apamea (Greek: Νουμήνιος ὁ ἐξ Ἀπαμείας) was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria
Syria
and Rome,[1] and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD
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