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Middle Paleolithic
Pliocene
Pliocene
(before Homo ) Lower Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka ) * Oldowan (2.6–1.7
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Sahelanthropus
SAHELANTHROPUS TCHADENSIS is an extinct homininae species (and is probably the ancestor to Orrorin ) that is dated to about 7 million years ago , during the Miocene
Miocene
epoch, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence . Few specimens are known, other than the partial skull nicknamed Toumaï ("hope of life")
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Orrorin
ORRORIN TUGENENSIS is a postulated early species of Homininae , estimated at 6.1 to 5.7 million years (Ma) and discovered in 2000. It is not confirmed how Orrorin
Orrorin
is related to modern humans . Its discovery was an argument against the hypothesis that australopithecines are human ancestors, as much as it still remains the most prevalent hypothesis of human evolution as of 2012. The name of genus ORRORIN (plural Orroriek) means "original man" in Tugen , and the name of the only classified species, O. tugenensis, derives from Tugen Hills in Kenya
Kenya
, where the first fossil was found in 2000. As of 2007, 20 fossils of the species have been found
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Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus kadabba Ardipithecus ramidus ARDIPITHECUS is a genus of an extinct hominine that lived during Late Miocene
Miocene
and Early Pliocene in Afar Depression , Ethiopia
Ethiopia
. Originally described as one of the earliest ancestors of humans after they diverged from the main ape lineage, the relation of this genus to human ancestors and whether it is a hominin is now a matter of debate. Two fossil species are described in the literature: A. ramidus, which lived about 4.4 million years ago during the early Pliocene
Pliocene
, and A. kadabba, dated to approximately 5.6 million years ago (late Miocene
Miocene
). Behavioral analysis showed that Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus
could be very similar to chimpanzees , indicating that the early human ancestors were very chimpanzee-like in behaviour
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Australopithecus
†A. africanus †A. deyiremeda † A. garhi A. sediba ALSO CALLED PARANTHROPUS †P. aethiopicus †P. robustus †P. boisei ALSO CALLED PRAEANTHROPUS †A. afarensis † A. anamensis A. bahrelghazali AUSTRALOPITHECUS (AW-struh-loh-PITH-i-kuhs , /ˌɒstrələˈpɪθᵻkəs, ˌɔː-, -loʊ-/ ; etymology Latin australis "southern", Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape"; informal AUSTRALOPITHECINE or AUSTRALOPITH) is an extinct genus of hominins . From paleontological and archaeological evidence, the Australopithecus genus apparently evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct somewhat after two million years ago. During that time, a number of australopithecine species emerged, including Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis
, A. africanus , A
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Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus macedoniensis
Ouranopithecus macedoniensis
Ouranopithecus turkae OURANOPITHECUS is an extinct genus of Eurasian great ape represented by two species, Ouranopithecus macedoniensis
Ouranopithecus macedoniensis
, a late Miocene (9.6–8.7 mya) hominoid from Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, and Ouranopithecus turkae , also from the late Miocene
Miocene
(8.7–7.4 mya) of Turkey. CONTENTS * 1 Systematics * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links SYSTEMATICSBased on O. macedoniensis's dental and facial anatomy , it has been suggested that the Ouranopithecus
Ouranopithecus
were actually dryopithecines . However, Ouranopithecines are probably more closely related to the Ponginae . Some researchers consider O
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Nakalipithecus
NAKALIPITHECUS NAKAYAMAI is a Prehistoric
Prehistoric
ape species that lived in today's Kenya
Kenya
region early in the Late Miocene
Miocene
, 10 million years ago (mya). It is the type species of the new genus Nakalipithecus. This ape was described from a fossil jawbone and eleven isolated teeth excavated in 2007 by a team of Japanese and Kenyan researchers in mud flow deposits in the Nakali region of northern Kenya
Kenya
's Rift Valley Province , giving the genus its scientific name which means "Nakali ape". Fossil
Fossil
remains of several other primate species were also present at the dig site. The fossil teeth were covered in thick enamel, suggesting that the diet of this hominoid included a considerable amount of hard objects, possibly nuts or seeds
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Bangkok
Bangkok

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Recent African Origin Of Modern Humans
The RECENT AFRICAN ORIGIN OF MODERN HUMANS – also called the "OUT OF AFRICA" THEORY (OOA), RECENT SINGLE-ORIGIN HYPOTHESIS (RSOH), REPLACEMENT HYPOTHESIS, or RECENT AFRICAN ORIGIN MODEL (RAO) – is, in paleoanthropology , the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans ( Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
), which proposes a single area of origin for modern humans. According to this model, modern humans evolved in East Africa
East Africa
and then began to disperse throughout the world roughly 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. The single-origin hypothesis is cited as having the scientific consensus as of the mid-2000s
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Epigravettian
Georges Laplace (fr), 1958 (broader-than-modern meaning) Broglio, Laplace et al., 1963 (modern meaning, as “Tardigravettiano”) The EPIGRAVETTIAN (Greek: epi "above, on top of", and Gravettian ) was one of the last archaeological industries of the European Upper Paleolithic . It arose after the Last Glacial Maximum around ~21,000 cal. BP . It is related to the Gravettian , of which it is considered a continuation by some scholars (e.g. G. Laplace). In this sense, the Epigravettian
Epigravettian
is simply the Gravettian after ~21,000 BP, when the Solutrean had replaced the Gravettian in most of France and Spain. Its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River , Russia, with a large number of sites in Italy. It was replaced by Mesolithic cultures around 10,000 BP. REFERENCES * ^ Montoya, Cyril (2004)
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Homo Habilis
HOMO HABILIS was a species of the tribe Hominini , during the Gelasian and early Calabrian stages of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period, which lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. The type specimen is OH 7 , discovered in 1960 at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, associated with the Oldowan lithic industry; the fossils were identified as a separate species of Homo
Homo
with the proposed binomial name of H. habilis ("handy man") in 1964. In its appearance and morphology , H. habilis is the least similar to modern humans of all species in the genus Homo
Homo
(except the equally controversial H. rudolfensis ), and its classification as Homo
Homo
has been the subject of controversial debate since its first proposal in the 1960s
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Human Skeletal Changes Due To Bipedalism
The evolution of human BIPEDALISM , which began in primates about four million years ago, or as early as seven million years ago with Sahelanthropus
Sahelanthropus
, has led to morphological alterations to the human skeleton including changes to the arrangement and size of the bones of the foot, hip size and shape, knee size, leg length, and the shape and orientation of the vertebral column . The evolutionary factors that produced these changes have been the subject of several theories . CONTENTS * 1 Energy efficiency * 2 Foot
Foot
* 3 Knee * 4 Limbs * 5 Hip
Hip
* 6 Vertebral column
Vertebral column
* 7 Skull * 8 Significance * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links ENERGY EFFICIENCY Human
Human
walking is about 75% less costly than both quadrupedal and bipedal walking in chimpanzees
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Pliocene
The PLIOCENE ( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/ ; also PLEIOCENE ) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP . It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era . The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene. As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Madrasian Culture
The MADRASIAN CULTURE is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India
India
, dated to the Lower Paleolithic , the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age
Stone Age
. It belongs to the Acheulian industry , and some scholars consider the distinction between the Madrasian and the broader, regional Acheulian tradition defunct. The culture is characterized by bifacial handaxes and cleavers , but also includes flake tools , microliths and other chopping tools. Most were made from quartzite . The Madrasian was named for its type site of Attirampakkam , near to the city of Madras (now known as Chennai
Chennai
), discovered by British archaeologist and geologist Robert Bruce Foote in 1863. The oldest tools at Attirampakkam have been dated to 1.5 million years ago using cosmic-ray exposure dating
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