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Middle Paleolithic
The Middle Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Old Stone Age
Stone Age
as it is understood in Europe, Africa
Africa
and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age
Stone Age
is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic
Paleolithic
in African archeology.[1] The Middle Paleolithic
Paleolithic
broadly spanned from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago. There are considerable dating differences between regions
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Trialetian
Trialetian
Trialetian
is the name for an Upper Paleolithic- Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
stone tool industry from the area south of the Caucasus Mountains[1] and to the northern Zagros Mountains. It is tentatively dated to the period between 16,000 / 13,000 BP and 8,000 BP.[2] The name of the archaeological culture derives from sites in the district of Trialeti in south Georgian Khrami
Khrami
river basin. These sites include Barmaksyzkaya and Edzani-Zurtaketi,.[3] In Edzani, an Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
site, a significant percentage of the artifacts are made of obsidian.[4] The Caucasian-Anatolian area of Trialetian
Trialetian
culture was adjacent to the Iraqi-Iranian Zarzian culture
Zarzian culture
to the east and south as well as the Levantine Natufian to the southwest.[5] Alan H
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Epigravettian
Georges Laplace (fr), 1958 (broader-than-modern meaning)[2] Broglio, Laplace et al., 1963 (modern meaning, as “Tardigravettiano”)[3]The Epigravettian
Epigravettian
(Greek: epi "above, on top of", and Gravettian) was one of the last archaeological industries of the European Upper Paleolithic. It arose after the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
around ~21,000 cal. BP. It is related to the Gravettian, of which it is considered a continuation by some scholars (e.g. G. Laplace). In this sense, the Epigravettian
Epigravettian
is simply the Gravettian
Gravettian
after ~21,000 BP, when the Solutrean
Solutrean
had replaced the Gravettian
Gravettian
in most of France and Spain. Its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River, Russia, with a large number of sites in Italy
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Sebilian
Sebilian is a pre-historic archaeological culture in Egypt
Egypt
spanning the period c.13,000-10,000 B.C.Contents1 Location 2 Dating 3 Characteristics 4 ReferencesLocation[edit] The culture is known by the name given by Edmond Vignard to finds he located at Kom Ombo
Kom Ombo
on the banks of the river Nile from 1919 continuing into the 1920s. Nine sites were found by A. Marks in the area of the Wadi Halfa; Wendorf located three approximately 10 kilometres from Abu Simbel
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Périgordian
Périgordian is a term for several distinct but related Upper Palaeolithic cultures which are thought by some archaeologists to represent a contiguous tradition. It existed between c.35,000 BP and c.20,000 BP. To Pesesse (2013), the Perigordian is one of the construction of prehistorians (namely Denis Peyrony (fr) 1933, 1936, 1946) most distantly removed from archaeological data.[1] The earliest culture in the tradition is known as the Châtelperronian which produced denticulate tools and distinctive flint knives. It is argued that this was superseded by the Gravettian
Gravettian
with its Font Robert points and Noailles burins
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Halfan Culture
The Halfan industry is one of the Late Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
industries of the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
that began to appear by 19,000-17,000 BP.[1] It is one of the earliest known backed-bladelet industries in Northern Africa, largely dating between 19,000 and 14,000 BP in Nubia
Nubia
and Egypt.[2] The Halfan was formerly seen as the parent culture of the Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
industry in the Maghreb. Since the earliest Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
is dated to ≥ 23,950 BP, it is more likely that the Halfan culture is descended from Ibero-maurusian culture. The Halfan culture is believed to have descended from the Khormusan Culture [3] [4] which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival. The Halfan people survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing
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Khormusan
Khormusan industry was a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
archeological industry in Egypt and Sudan dated at 42,000 to 18,000 BP.[1] The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 42,000 and 32,000 BP.[2] Khormusans developed tools not only from stone but also from animal bones and hematite.[2] They also developed small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans,[2] but no bows have been found.[2] The end of the Khormusan industry came around 18,000 BP. with the appearance of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.[3] References[edit]^ Goder-Goldberger, Mae (2013). "The Khormusan: Evidence for an MSA East African industry in Nubia". Quaternary International. 300: 182–94. Bibcode:2013QuInt.300..182G. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2012.11.031.  ^ a b c d "Ancient Egyptian Culture: Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Egypt". Emuseum. Minnesota: Minnesota State University
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Natufian Culture
The Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
Natufian culture
Natufian culture
(/nəˈtuːfiən/[1]) existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean. The culture was unusual in that it supported a sedentary or semi-sedentary population even before the introduction of agriculture. The Natufian communities may be the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements of the region, which may have been the earliest in the world.[citation needed] Natufians founded Jericho
Jericho
which may be the oldest city in the world. Some evidence suggests deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at Tell Abu Hureyra, the site of earliest evidence of agriculture in the world.[2] Generally, though, Natufians exploited wild cereals. Animals hunted included gazelles.[3] According to Christy G
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Eburran Industry
Eburran industry is the name of the East African tool assemblage from 13,000 BCE and thereafter around Lake Nakuru
Lake Nakuru
in the Ol Doinyo Eburru volcano complex (name giving) in the Rift Valley in Kenya.[1] The culture was a time known as "Kenyan Capsian" because the findings resemble those of the North African Capsian
Capsian
trans-Saharan culture. It was also formerly called "Kenyan Aurignacian". The assemblages, as recovered from Gamble's Cave and Nderit Drift, comprise large backed blades, crescentric microliths, burins, and end-scrapers
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Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
is a Late Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
Siberian complex of archaeological sites located on the left bank of the Yenisei River near the city of Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
has cultural and genetic links to the people from Mal'ta-Buret'. The complex was first excavated in 1884 by I. T
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Ahmarian
Ahmarian culture[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] was a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
archeological industry in Levant
Levant
dated at 46,000-42,000 BP and thought to be related to Levantine Emiran
Emiran
and younger European Aurignacian
Aurignacian
cultures. Ahmarian is considered to be the likely source of first modern humans who migrated to Europe to form Aurignacian
Aurignacian
culture. Although European Bohunician culture that may be linked to Emiran
Emiran
and Ahmarian itself and dated at 48,000 BP may predate it.[8] References[edit]^ "Archaeologists carbon dated a cave in Israel to reveal details about the two first modern human cultures". 28 December 2017.  ^ "Variability in Early Ahmarian lithic technology and its implications for the model of a Levantine origin of the Protoaurignacian"
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Bohunician
Bohunician industry was a paleolithic archeological industry in South-Central and East Europe. The earliest artifacts assigned to this culture are dated using radiocarbon dating at 48,000 BP. Which may make the earliest presence of modern humans in Europe predating Aurignacian
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Khiamian
The Khiamian
Khiamian
(also referred to as El Khiam
El Khiam
or El-Khiam) is a period of the Near-Eastern Neolithic, marking the transition between the Natufian and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Neolithic
A
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Mal'ta–Buret' Culture
Coordinates: 52°54′N 103°30′E / 52.9°N 103.5°E / 52.9; 103.5 The Mal'ta–Buret' culture
Mal'ta–Buret' culture
is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(c. 24,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River
Angara River
in the area west of Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation. The type sites are named for the villages of Mal'ta (Мальта), Usolsky District and Buret' (Буреть), Bokhansky District (both in Irkutsk Oblast). A boy whose remains were found near Mal'ta is usually known by the abbreviation MA-1 (or MA1). Discovered in the 1920s, the remains have been date to 24,000 BP
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Zarzian Culture
Zarzian culture
Zarzian culture
is an archaeological culture of late Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
in Southwest Asia. The period of the culture is estimated to have existed about 18,000–8,000 BCE. It was preceded by the Baradostian culture in the same region and was related to the Imereti culture[citation needed] of the Caucasus. The culture was named and recognised of the cave of Zarzi in Iraqi Kurdistan. Here were found plenty of microliths (up to 20% finds). Their forms are short and asymmetric trapezoids, and triangles with hollows. Andy Burns states "The Zarzian of the Zagros region of Iran is contemporary with the Natufian
Natufian
but different from it. The only dates for the entire Zarzian come from Palegawra Cave, and date to 17,300-17,000BP, but it is clear that it is broadly contemporary with the Levantine Kebaran, with which it shares features
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Iberomaurusian
The Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.[1] Its name, meaning "of Iberia and Mauritania", is based on Pallary (1909)'s belief[2] that it extended over the strait of Gibraltar into Spain and Portugal, a theory now generally discounted (Garrod 1938).[3] Pallary (1909) originally described the industry based on material found at the site of Abri Mouillah.[2] Because the name of the
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