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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Kurbet Language
Kurbetcha (or Gurbetcha) is a creole language with what appears to be predominantly Romani vocabulary and Cypriot Turkish grammar, spoken by the Kurbet (Roma) of Cyprus. The Kurbet have traditionally also spoken Turkish. The majority settled in the north after 1974, but many of those have returned to the south (i.e. the areas under the effective control of the Republic of Cyprus) in recent years. Kurbetcha has been very little studied. Children are not learning the language; it has been supplanted by Turkish in the north and Greek in the south.[1] See also[edit]Languages of Cyprus Para-RomaniReferences[edit]^ Hadjioannou, Xenia; Tsiplakou, Stavroula; Kappler, Matthias (2011). "Language policy and language planning in Cyprus". Current Issues in Language Planning. Routledge
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Albanian Language
Latin
Latin
(Albanian alphabet) Albanian Braille Greek (Arvanitika)Official statusOfficial language in Albania  Kosovo[a]  Macedonia (partly)[2]Recognised minority language in Italy  Montenegro  Serbia  Croatia  RomaniaRegulated by Officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of AlbaniaLanguage codesISO 639-1 sqISO 639-2 alb (B) sqi (T)ISO 639-3 sqi – inclusive code Individual codes: aae – Arbëresh aat – Arvanitika aln – Gheg als – ToskGlottolog alba1267[3]Linguasphere 55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties) Albanian dialects
Albanian dialects
(The map does not indicate where the language is majority or minority).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Abaza Language
The Abaza language
Abaza language
(абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; Adyghe: абазэбзэ) is a language of the Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey. In fact the language has gone through several different orthographies based primarily on Arabic, Roman, and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
letters. The syntax and phonology are rather unique as its consonant to vowel ratio is remarkably high; making it quite similar to many other languages from the same parent chain. The language evolved during its popularity in the mid to late 1800s and eventually started to die out. [3] Abaza is spoken by approximately 35,000 people in Russia, where it is written in a Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet, as well as another 10,000 in Turkey, where the Latin script
Latin script
is used
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Abkhaz Language
Cyrillic
Cyrillic
(Abkhaz alphabet) Historically: Latin, GeorgianOfficial statusOfficial language inRepublic of Abkhazia;[a] Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, GeorgiaLanguage codesISO 639-1 ab AbkhazianISO 639-2 abk AbkhazianISO 639-3 abk AbkhazianGlottolog abkh1244  Abkhazian[2]Abkhaz (/æbˈkɑːz/;[3] /æpˈhɑːz/;[4] sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа /apʰswa bɨzʃʷa/), also known as Abkhazian,[2][5][6] is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza. It is spoken mostly by the Abkhaz people. It is one of the official languages of Abkhazia[a], where around 100,000 people speak it.[1] Furthermore, it is spoken by thousands of members of the Abkhazian diaspora in Turkey, Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara, Syria, Jordan
Jordan
and several Western countries
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. It is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form [1]. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some varieties of Arabic
Arabic
in North Africa, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
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Amharic
Amharic
Amharic
(/æmˈhærɪk/[5][6][7] or /ɑːmˈhɑːrɪk/;[8] Amharic: አማርኛ, Amarəñña, IPA: [amarɨɲːa] ( listen)) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch, a member of the Ethiosemitic group. It is spoken as a mother tongue by the Amhara, and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia
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Azerbaijani Language
 Azerbaijan  Russia DagestanRegulated by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of SciencesLanguage codesISO 639-1 azISO 639-2 azeISO 639-3 aze – inclusive code Individual codes: azj – North Azerbaijani azb – South Azerbaijani slq – Salchuq qxq – QashqaiGlottolog azer1255  North Azeri–Salchuq[2] sout2696  South Azeri–Qashqa'i[3]Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-aLocation of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia   regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority   regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Bosniak Language
The Bosnian language (/ˈbɒzniən/ ( listen); bosanski / босански [bɔ̌sanskiː]) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.[4][5][6] Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[7] along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia,[8] Montenegro,[9] and the Republic of Kosovo.[10] Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet,[Note 1] with Latin in everyday use.[11] It is notable among the varieties of Serbo-Croatian for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language's interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties.[12][13][14] Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Circassian Language
Circassian /sɜːrˈkæsiən/, also known as Cherkess /tʃərˈkɛs/, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family. There are two Circassian languages, defined by their literary standards, Adyghe (КӀахыбзэ, also known as West Circassian), with half a million speakers, and Kabardian (Къэбэрдейбзэ, also known as East Circassian), with a million. The languages are mutually intelligible with one another. The earliest extant written records of the Circassian languages
Circassian languages
are in the Arabic script, recorded by the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
in the 17th century.[2] There is a strong consensus among the linguistic community about the fact that Adyghe and Kabardian are typologically distinct languages.[3][4][5] However, the local terms for these languages refer to them as dialects
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Crimean Tatar Language
 Russia Republic of Crimea[2]Recognised minority language in Ukraine[3] Autonomous Republic of Crimea[2] Romania[4]Language codesISO 639-2 crhISO 639-3 crhGlottolog crim1257[5]Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-aCrimean Tatar-speaking worldThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Coptic Language
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲙ̄ⲛ̄ⲕⲏⲙⲉ t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt
Egypt
until at least the 17th century.[2] Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet, an adaptation of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
with the addition of six or seven signs from demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language
Greek language
did not have, in the first century AD.[3] Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are Sahidic, originating in parts of Upper Egypt, and Bohairic, originally from the western Nile Delta
Nile Delta
in Lower Egypt. Coptic and Demotic are grammatically closely related to Late Egyptian, which was written with Egyptian hieroglyphs
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Balkan Gagauz Turkish
Balkan Gagauz Turkish, also known as Balkan Turkic, is a Turkic language spoken in European Turkey, in Dulovo and the Deliorman
Deliorman
area in Bulgaria, and in the Kumanovo
Kumanovo
and Bitola
Bitola
areas of the Republic of Macedonia.[3] Dialects include Gajal, Gerlovo Turk, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turk, Yuruk, and Macedonian Gagauz. Although it is mutually intelligible with both Gagauz[3] and Turkish to a considerable degree, it is usually classified as a spearate language due to foreign influences from neighboring languages spoken in the Balkans. References[edit]^ Balkan Gagauz Turkish at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balkan Gagauz Turkish". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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