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Middle East
The MIDDLE EAST is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia
Asia
, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European ), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa
North Africa
). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East ) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs
Arabs
, Turks , Persians , Kurds
Kurds
, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population
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Balochi Language
BALOCHI (Balochi: بلؤچی‎‎) is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch people
Baloch people
. CONTENTS* 1 Phonology * 1.1 Vowels * 1.2 Consonants * 2 Grammar * 3 Dialects * 4 Writing system * 4.1 The Sayad Zahurshah Hashemi \' Urdu
Urdu
Arabic
Arabic
orthography\' * 4.2 Balochi orthography * 4.3 Balochi Latin alphabet * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links PHONOLOGYVOWELSThe Balochi vowel system has at least eight vowels: five long vowels and three short vowels . The long vowels are /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, and /uː/. The short vowels are /a/, /i/ and /u/. The short vowels have more centralized phonetic qualities than the long vowels. Southern Balochi (at least as spoken in Karachi) also has nasalized vowels, most importantly /ẽː/ and /ãː/
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Bosniak Language
The BOSNIAN LANGUAGE (/ˈbɒzniən/ ( listen ); bosanski / босански, ) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks
Bosniaks
. Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia
Serbia
, Montenegro
Montenegro
, and the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
. Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet , with Latin in everyday use. It is notable among the varieties of Serbo-Croatian for a number of Arabic , Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language's interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Circassian Language
CIRCASSIAN /sərˈkæsiən/ , also known as CHERKESS /tʃərˈkɛs/ , is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family. There are two Circassian languages, defined by their literary standards, Adyghe (КӀахыбзэ, also known as West Circassian), with half a million speakers, and Kabardian (Къэбэрдейбзэ, also known as East Circassian), with a million. The languages are mutually intelligible with one another. The earliest extant written records of the Circassian languages
Circassian languages
are in the Arabic script
Arabic script
, recorded by the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
in the 17th century. There is a strong consensus among the linguistic community about the fact that Adyghe and Kabardian are typologically distinct languages. However, the local terms for these languages refer to them as dialects
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Azerbaijani Language
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Russia
Russia
* Dagestan
Dagestan
REGULATED BY Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 az ISO 639-2 aze ISO 639-3 aze – inclusive code Individual codes: azj – North Azerbaijani azb – South Azerbaijani slq – Salchuq qxq – Qashqai GLOTTOLOG azer1255 North Azeri–Salchuq sout2696 South Azeri–Qashqa'i LINGUASPHERE part of 44-AAB-a Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minority THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
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Amharic
AMHARIC (አማርኛ) (/æmˈhærɪk/ or /ɑːmˈhɑːrɪk/ ; Amharic: Amarəñña, IPA: ( listen )) is an Afro-Asiatic language of the Semitic branch and is a member of the Ethiosemitic group. It is spoken as a mother tongue by the Amhara and other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
. The language serves as the official working language of Ethiopia, and is also the official or working language of several of the states within the federal system. Amharic
Amharic
is the second-most widely spoken Semitic language in the world after Arabic
Arabic

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Abaza Language
The ABAZA LANGUAGE (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; Adyghe : абазэбзэ) is a language of the Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey. In fact the language has gone through several different orthographies based primarily on Arabic, Roman, and Cyrillic
Cyrillic
letters. The syntax and phonology are rather unique as its consonant to vowel ratio is remarkably high; making it quite similar to many other languages from the same parent chain. The language evolved during its popularity in the mid to late 1800s and eventually started to die out. Abaza is spoken by approximately 35,000 people in Russia, where it is written in a Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet , as well as another 10,000 in Turkey
Turkey
, where the Latin script
Latin script
is used
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Abkhaz Language
Cyrillic
Cyrillic
( Abkhaz alphabet ) Historically: Latin , Georgian OFFICIAL STATUS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN Republic of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
; Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, Georgia LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ab Abkhazian ISO 639-2 abk Abkhazian ISO 639-3 abk Abkhazian GLOTTOLOG abkh1244 Abkhazian ABKHAZ (/æpˈhɑːz/ ; sometimes spelled ABXAZ; Аԥсуа бызшәа /apʰswa bɨzʃʷa/), also known as ABKHAZIAN, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza . It is spoken mostly by the Abkhaz people
Abkhaz people
. It is one of the official languages of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, Georgia , where around 100,000 people speak it
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages
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Albanian Language
ALBANIAN (shqip or gjuha shqipe ) occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European language tree. It is the official language of Albania
Albania
and Kosovo
Kosovo
. The language is spoken by over five million people, primarily in Albania
Albania
, Kosovo
Kosovo
, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
, but also in other areas of Southern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro
Montenegro
and the Preševo Valley
Preševo Valley
of southern Serbia
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Crimean Tatar Language
Russia
Russia
* Republic of Crimea Recognised minority language in Ukraine
Ukraine
* Autonomous Republic of Crimea Romania
Romania
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-2 crh ISO 639-3 crh GLOTTOLOG crim1257 LINGUASPHERE part of 44-AAB-a Crimean Tatar-speaking world THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian , is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino
San Marino
, Vatican City and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
)
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Hindi
HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Hindī), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: मानक हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. Along with the English language
English language
, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India
India
. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India
India

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Kazakh Language
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Russia
Russia
* Altai Republic
Altai Republic
China
China
* Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture REGULATED BY Kazakh language
Kazakh language
agency LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 kk ISO 639-2 kaz ISO 639-3 kaz GLOTTOLOG kaza1248 LINGUASPHERE 44-AAB-cc The Kazakh-speaking world: regions where Kazakh is the language of the majority regions where Kazakh is the language of a significant minority THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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