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Microfluidics
Microfluidics
Microfluidics
deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale
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Fluids
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas, and to some extent, plastic solids. Fluids are substances that have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, a fluid is a substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious
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Clinical Pathology
Clinical pathology
Clinical pathology
(US, UK, Ireland, Commonwealth, Portugal, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Peru), Laboratory Medicine
Medicine
(Germany, Romania, Poland, Eastern Europe), Clinical analysis (Spain) or Clinical/Medical Biology (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, North and West Africa...),[1] is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissue homogenates or extracts using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology
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Molecular Biology
Molecular biology
Molecular biology
/məˈlɛkjʊlər/ is a branch of biochemistry which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.[1] Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as:"...not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and [...] is predominantly three-dimensional and structural—which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology
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Glucose
Glucose
Glucose
is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose
Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose
Glucose
is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D- Glucose
Glucose
is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not
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Lactic Acid
Lactic acid
Lactic acid
is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. In its solid state, it is white and water-soluble. In its liquid state, it is colorless. It is produced both naturally and synthetically. With a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, lactic acid is classified as an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA). In the form of its conjugate base called lactate, it plays a role in several biochemical processes. In solution, it can ionize a proton from the carboxyl group, producing the lactate ion CH 3CH(OH)CO− 2. Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid deprotonates ten times more easily than acetic acid does. This higher acidity is the consequence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the α-hydroxyl and the carboxylate group. Lactic acid
Lactic acid
is chiral, consisting of two optical isomers
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Assay
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). The analyte can be a drug, a biochemical substance, or a cell in an organism or organic sample.[1][2] The measured entity is generally called the analyte, the measurand or the target of the assay. The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA
DNA
sequence. Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis,[1][2] who was an employee of the Cetus Corporation, and also the winner of Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1993, it is an easy, cheap, and reliable way to repeatedly replicate a focused segment of DNA, a concept which is applicable to numerous fields in modern biology and related sciences.[3] PCR is probably the most widely used technique in molecular biology
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Sequencing
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing
Sequencing
results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule.Contents1 DNA
DNA
sequencing1.1 Sanger sequencing 1.2 Pyrosequencing 1.3 True single molecule sequencing 1.4 Large-scale sequencing2 RNA
RNA
sequencing 3 Protein
Protein
sequencing 4 Polysaccharide
Polysaccharide
sequencing 5 See also 6 References DNA
DNA
sequencing[edit] Main article: DNA
DNA
sequencing DNA sequencing
DNA sequencing
is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA
DNA
fragment
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Proteomics
Proteomics
Proteomics
is the large-scale study of proteins.[1][2] Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, with many functions. The term proteomics was coined in 1997[3] in analogy with genomics, the study of the genome. The word proteome is a portmanteau of protein and genome, and was coined by Marc Wilkins in 1994 while he was a PhD student at Macquarie University.[4] Macquarie University
Macquarie University
also founded the first dedicated proteomics laboratory in 1995[5] (the Australian Proteome Analysis Facility – APAF).[6]. The proteome is the entire set of proteins that are produced or modified by an organism or system
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Diseases
A disease is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism not caused by external force[1][2] (see 'injury') and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function, usually serving as an evolutionary disadvantage. The study of disease is called pathology, which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[3] It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system, such as an immunodeficiency, or by a hypersensitivity, including allergies and autoimmunity. When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen
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Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms. Diffusion
Diffusion
is driven by a gradient in chemical potential of the diffusing species. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity e.g. concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance
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Toxins
A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1][2] synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).[3] Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors
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Pathogens
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Smoke Alarm
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system, while household smoke detectors, also known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are housed in plastic enclosures, typically shaped like a disk about 150 millimetres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick, but shape and size vary. Smoke can be detected either optically (photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization); detectors may use either, or both, methods. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned
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