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Microecosystem
Microecosystems can exist in locations which are precisely defined by critical environmental factors within small or tiny spaces. Such factors may include temperature, pH, chemical milieu, nutrient supply, presence of symbionts or solid substrates, gaseous atmosphere (aerobic or anaerobic) etc.Contents1 Some examples1.1 Pond microecosystems 1.2 Soil microecosystems 1.3 Terrestrial hot-spring microecosystems 1.4 Deep-sea microecosystems 1.5 Closed microecosystem2 ReferencesSome examples[edit] Pond microecosystems[edit] These microecosystems with limited water volume are often only of temporary duration and hence colonized by organisms which possess a drought-resistant spore stage in the lifecycle, or by organisms which do not need to live in water continuously. The ecosystem conditions appliying at a typical pond edge can be quite different from those further from shore
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Natural Environment
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth
Earth
or some parts of Earth. This environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate, weather, and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. [1] The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components:Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from civilized human actionsIn contrast to the natural environment is the built environment
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Cyanobacteria
As of 2014[update] the taxonomy was under revision[1][2]Chroococcales Chroococcidiopsidales Gloeobacterales Nostocales Oscillatoriales Pleurocapsales Spirulinales Synechococcales Incertae sedis†Gunflintia†OzarkcolleniaSynonymsMyxophyceae Wallroth, 1833 Phycochromaceae Rabenhorst, 1865 Cyanophyceae Sachs, 1874 Schizophyceae Cohn, 1879 Cyanophyta Steinecke, 1931 Oxyphotobacteria Gibbons & Murray, 1978 Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
/saɪˌænoʊbækˈtɪəriə/, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis,[4] and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.[5] The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός, translit. kyanós, lit. 'blue').[6][7] Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
(which are prokaryotes) used to be called "blue-green algae"
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Primary Nutritional Groups
Primary
Primary
may refer to:Contents1 Arts and culture 2 Computing 3 Mathematics 4 Politics 5 Science and mechanics 6 Other 7 See alsoArts and culture[edit] Primary
Primary
(film), 1960 documentary Primary
Primary
(band), from Australia Primary
Primary
(musician), a South Korean musician "Primary" (song), by The Cure Primary
Primary
Music, Israeli record label "Primary", a song by Spoon from the album Telephono Primaries or primary beams, in E. E
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Autotroph
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).[1] They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water (in contrast to heterotrophs as consumers of autotrophs). They do not need a living source of energy or organic carbon. Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide to make organic compounds for biosynthesis and also create a store of chemical energy. Most autotrophs use water as the reducing agent, but some can use other hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide
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Resource (biology)
In Biology
Biology
and Ecology, a resource is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Resources can be consumed by one organism and, as a result, become unavailable to another organism.[1][2][3] For plants key resources are light, nutrients, water, and place to grow
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List Of Feeding Behaviours
Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food. Terminology often uses either the suffixes -vore, -vory, -vorous from Latin vorare, meaning "to devour", or -phage, -phagy, -phagous from Greek φαγειν (phagein), meaning "to eat".Contents1 Evolutionary history 2 Evolutionary adaptations 3 Classification3.1 By mode of ingestion 3.2 By mode of digestion 3.3 By food type4 Storage behaviours 5 Others 6 See also 7 References7.1 NotesEvolutionary history[edit] The evolution of different feeding strategies is varied with some feeding strategies evolving several times in independent lineages. In terrestrial vertebrates, the earliest forms were large amphibious piscivores 400 million years ago
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Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius
Celsius
scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale
Fahrenheit scale
(°F), and the Kelvin
Kelvin
scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Volcanic Vent
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Green Algae
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae.[1] The land plants, or embryophytes, are thought to have emerged from the charophytes.[2] Therefore, cladistically, embryophytes belong to green algae as well. However, because the embryophytes are traditionally classified as neither algae nor green algae, green algae are a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[3][4][5][6] The clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae
Viridiplantae
and as the kingdom Plantae
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Rotifers
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. They were first described by Rev. John Harris in 1696, and other forms were described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
in 1703.[1] Most rotifers are around 0.1–0.5 mm long (although their size can range from 50 μm to over 2 mm),[2] and are common in freshwater environments throughout the world with a few saltwater species; for example, those of genus Synchaeta. Some rotifers are free swimming and truly planktonic, others move by inchworming along a substrate, and some are sessile, living inside tubes or gelatinous holdfasts that are attached to a substrate. About 25 species are colonial (e.g., Sinantherina semibullata), either sessile or planktonic
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Protozoa
Protozoa
Protozoa
(also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotic organisms, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.[1][2] Historically, the protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals," because they often possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, and lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae.[3][4] Although the traditional practice of grouping of protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy. In some systems of biological classification, Protozoa
Protozoa
is a high-level taxonomic group
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Biotic Component
Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem. Biotic components usually include:Producers, i.e. autotrophs: e.g. plants, convert the energy [from photosynthesis (the transfer of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into energy), or other sources such as hydrothermal vents] into food. Consumers, i.e. heterotrophs: e.g. animals, depend upon producers (occasionally other consumers) for food. Decomposers, i.e. detritivores: e.g. fungi and bacteria, break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually not living) into simpler form which can be reused.A biotic factor is any living component that affects the population of another organism, or the environment. This includes animals that consume the organism, and the living food that the organism consumes. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens, and disease outbreaks
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Thermophiles
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 41 and 122 °C (106 and 252 °F).[1][2] Many thermophiles are archaea
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Spore
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.[1] Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula.[2] Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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