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Microecosystem
MICROECOSYSTEMS can exist in locations which are precisely defined by critical environmental factors within small or tiny spaces. Such factors may include temperature , pH , chemical milieu, nutrient supply, presence of symbionts or solid substrates, gaseous atmosphere (aerobic or anaerobic) etc. CONTENTS* 1 Some examples * 1.1 Pond microecosystems * 1.2 Soil microecosystems * 1.3 Terrestrial hot-spring microecosystems * 1.4 Deep-sea microecosystems * 1.5 Closed microecosystem * 2 References SOME EXAMPLESPOND MICROECOSYSTEMSThese microecosystems with limited water volume are often only of temporary duration and hence colonized by organisms which possess a drought-resistant spore stage in the lifecycle, or by organisms which do not need to live in water continuously. The ecosystem conditions appliying at a typical pond edge can be quite different from those further from shore
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Green Algae
The GREEN ALGAE (singular: GREEN ALGA) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae, which are now placed in separate divisions . The land plants, or embryophytes , are thought to have emerged from the charophytes . Therefore, cladistically , embryophytes belong to green algae as well. However, as the embryophytes are traditionally classified as neither algae nor green algae, green algae are a paraphyletic group. The clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae
Plantae
. The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates , most with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid and filamentous forms, and macroscopic, multicellular seaweeds . In the Charales , the closest relatives of higher plants, full cellular differentiation of tissues occurs
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Rotifers
The ROTIFERS (ROTIFERA, commonly called WHEEL ANIMALS) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals . They were first described by Rev. John Harris in 1696, and other forms were described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1703. Most rotifers are around 0.1–0.5 mm long (although their size can range from 50 μm to over 2 mm), and are common in freshwater environments throughout the world with a few saltwater species; for example, those of genus Synchaeta
Synchaeta
. Some rotifers are free swimming and truly planktonic , others move by inchworming along a substrate, and some are sessile , living inside tubes or gelatinous holdfasts that are attached to a substrate. About 25 species are colonial (e.g., Sinantherina semibullata), either sessile or planktonic
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Protozoa
In some systems of biological classification , the PROTOZOA are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, PROTOZOA were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal -like behaviors, such as motility and predation . The group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the "protophyta ", which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis . The terms protozoa and protozoans are now mostly used informally to designate single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists , such as the ciliates , amoebae and flagellates . The term Protozoa
Protozoa
was introduced in 1818 by German paleontologist and zoologist Georg August Goldfuß for a taxonomic class , but in later classification schemes the group was elevated to higher ranks, including phylum , subkingdom and kingdom
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Cyanobacteria
As of 2014 the taxonomy was under revision * Chroococcales * Chroococcidiopsidales * Gloeobacterales * Nostocales * Oscillatoriales *
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Volcanic Vent
A VOLCANO is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object , such as Earth
Earth
, that allows hot lava , volcanic ash , and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging , and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge , such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Natural Environment
The NATURAL ENVIRONMENT encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally , meaning in this case not artificial . The term is most often applied to the Earth
Earth
or some parts of Earth. This environment encompasses the interaction of all living species , climate , weather, and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity
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Primary Production
In ecology , PRIMARY PRODUCTION is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide . It principally occurs through the process of photosynthesis , which uses light as its source of energy, but it also occurs through chemosynthesis , which uses the oxidation or reduction of inorganic chemical compounds as its source of energy. Almost all life on Earth
Earth
relies directly or indirectly on primary production. The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs , and form the base of the food chain . In terrestrial ecoregions , these are mainly plants , while in aquatic ecoregions algae predominate in this role. Ecologists distinguish primary production as either net or gross, the former accounting for losses to processes such as cellular respiration , the latter not
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Resource (biology)
In Biology
Biology
and Ecology
Ecology
, a RESOURCE is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth , maintenance , and reproduction . Resources can be consumed by one organism and, as a result, become unavailable to another organism. For plants key resources are light, nutrients, water, and place to grow. For animals key resources are food, water, and territory
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List Of Feeding Behaviours
FEEDING is the process by which organisms, typically animals , obtain food . Terminology often uses either the suffixes -vore, -vory, -vorous from Latin vorare, meaning "to devour", or -phage, -phagy, -phagous from Greek φαγειν (phagein), meaning "to eat". CONTENTS * 1 Evolutionary history * 2 Evolutionary adaptations * 3 Classification * 3.1 By mode of ingestion * 3.2 By mode of digestion * 3.3 By food type * 4 Storage behaviours * 5 Others * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Notes EVOLUTIONARY HISTORYThe evolution of different feeding strategies is varied with some feeding strategies evolving several times in independent lineages. In terrestrial vertebrates, the earliest forms were large amphibious piscivores 400 million years ago
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Thermophiles
A THERMOPHILE is an organism—a type of extremophile —that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 41 and 122 °C (106 and 252 °F). Many thermophiles are archaea . Thermophilic eubacteria are suggested to have been among the earliest bacteria. Thermophiles are found in various geothermally heated regions of the Earth
Earth
, such as hot springs like those in Yellowstone National Park (see image) and deep sea hydrothermal vents , as well as decaying plant matter, such as peat bogs and compost. Thermophiles can survive at high temperatures, whereas other bacteria would be damaged and sometimes killed if exposed to the same temperatures. The enzymes in thermophiles necessarily function at high temperatures. Some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology , for example, heat-stable DNA polymerases for PCR ), and in washing agents
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Biotic Component
BIOTIC COMPONENTS are the living things that shape an ecosystem . Biotic components usually include: * Producers, i.e. autotrophs : e.g. plants , convert the energy into food. * Consumers, i.e. heterotrophs : e.g. animals, depend upon producers (occasionally other consumers) for food. * Decomposers , i.e. detritivores : e.g. fungi and bacteria , break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually dead) into simpler form which can be reused.A BIOTIC FACTOR is any living component that affects the population of another organism , or the environment. This includes animals that consume the organism, and the living food that the organism consumes. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens, and disease outbreaks. Each biotic factor needs energy to do work and food for proper growth
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Temperature
TEMPERATURE is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold . Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer , historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement . The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale , denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale . The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities . The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero , at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Nutrient
A NUTRIENT is a component in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy an organism's metabolic system needs to function while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out. Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment. Micronutrients are used to build and repair tissues and to regulate body processes while macronutrients are converted to, and used for, energy. Methods of nutrient intake are different for plants and animals. Plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves. Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems that work to break down macronutrients for energy and utilize micronutrients for both metabolism and anabolism (constructive synthesis) in the body. Organic nutrients consist of carbohydrates , fats , proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids ), and vitamins
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Chemical
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE also known as a PURE SUBSTANCE is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory . Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt (sodium chloride ) and refined sugar (sucrose ). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical
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PH
In chemistry , PH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/ ) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution . It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration , measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions . More precisely it is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic . Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. pH measurements are important in agronomy , medicine , biology , chemistry , agriculture , forestry , food science , environmental science , oceanography , civil engineering , chemical engineering , nutrition , water treatment and water purification , as well as many other applications
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