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Michael Praetorius
Michael Praetorius (probably 15 February 1571 – 15 February 1621) was a German composer, organist, and music theorist.[1] He was one of the most versatile composers of his age, being particularly significant in the development of musical forms based on Protestant hymns, many of which reflect an effort to improve the relationship between Protestants and Catholics.Contents1 Life 2 Name 3 Works 4 Musical writings 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksLife[edit] Praetorius was born Michael Schultze, Schultheis, or Schultz, the youngest son of a Lutheran pastor, in Creuzburg, in present-day Thuringia. After attending school in Torgau
Torgau
and Zerbst, he studied divinity and philosophy at the University of Frankfurt (Oder). He was fluent in a number of languages. After receiving his musical education, from 1587 he served as organist at the Marienkirche in Frankfurt
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Composer
A composer ( Latin
Latin
compōnō; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms. A composer may create music in any musical music genre, including, for example, classical music, musical theatre, blues, folk music, jazz, and popular music
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Praetor
Praetor
Praetor
(Classical Latin: [ˈprajtoːr], also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history). The functions of the magistracy, the praetura (praetorship), are described by the adjective:[1] the praetoria potestas (praetorian power), the praetorium imperium (praetorian authority), and the praetorium ius (praetorian law), the legal precedents established by the praetores (praetors)
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Sibylle Elisabeth Of Württemberg
Sibylle Elisabeth of Württemberg (10 April 1584 - 20 January 1606), was a German Princess member of the House of Württemberg and by marriage Duchess of Saxony. Born in Mömpelgard, she was the third of fifteen children born from the marriage of Duke Frederick I of Württemberg and Sibylla, daughter of Prince Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt. Life[edit] Duke Frederick I sought the connection to the House of Saxony and searched for a match for Sybille Elisabeth (his eldest daughter) among the Protestant princes who were allies of the German Empire and were supportive of his quest for formal vassal ties to the House of Habsburg. She married John George I, Elector of Saxony on 16 September 1604. As wittum, she was given the castle, city, and jurisdiction of Weißensee
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Organ (music)
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool")[1] is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument,[2] dating from the time of Ctesibius
Ctesibius
of Alexandria (285–222 BC), who invented the water organ
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John George I, Elector Of Saxony
John George I (German: Johann Georg I.) (5 March 1585 – 8 October 1656) was Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656.Contents1 Biography 2 Assessment 3 Family and children 4 Ancestors 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesBiography[edit] Born in Dresden, John George was the second son of the Elector Christian I and Sophie of Brandenburg.[1] He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin.Engraving of John George I, Elector of Saxony. Anselm van Hulle.Engraving, Cornelis Danckaerts Historis, 1642John George succeeded to the electorate on 23 June 1611 on the death of his elder brother, Christian II. The geographical position of the Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
rather than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War. At the beginning of his reign, however, the new elector took up a somewhat detached position
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Dresden
Dresden
Dresden
(German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩] ( listen); Czech: Drážďany, Polish: Drezno) is the capital city[2] and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city[3] of the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden
Dresden
has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden
Dresden
in World War II
World War II
towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre
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Venetian Polychoral Style
Venetian
Venetian
or The Venetian
Venetian
may refer to:Venice, denizens of this city in Italy Republic of Venice, historical denizens of this country The Veneti
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Venetian School (music)
In music history, the Venetian School was the body and work of composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610. The Venetian polychoral compositions of the late sixteenth century were among the most famous musical events in Europe, and their influence on musical practice in other countries was enormous. The innovations introduced by the Venetian school, along with the contemporary development of monody and opera in Florence, together define the end of the musical Renaissance and the beginning of the musical Baroque.Contents1 History 2 Composers 3 See also 4 References and further reading 5 NotesHistory[edit] Several major factors came together to create the Venetian School
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Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
(c. 1554/1557 – 12 August 1612) was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.Contents1 Biography 2 Music and style 3 Works3.1 Concerti (1587) 3.2 Sacrae Symphoniae (1597) 3.3 Canzoni per sonare (1608) 3.4 Canzone e Sonate (1615) 3.5 Sacrae Symphoniae II (1615)4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Gabrieli was born in Venice. He was one of five children, and his father came from the region of Carnia
Carnia
and went to Venice
Venice
shortly before Giovanni's birth
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Song
A song, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections. Written words created specifically for music or for which music is specifically created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are often referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs. These songs, which have broad appeal, are often composed by professional songwriters, composers and lyricists
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Magnificat
The Magnificat
Magnificat
( Latin
Latin
for "[My soul] magnifies [the Lord]") is a canticle, also known as the Song of Mary, the Canticle of Mary and, in the Byzantine tradition, the Ode of the Theotokos
Theotokos
(Greek: Ἡ ᾨδὴ τῆς Θεοτόκου)
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Multiphonic
A multiphonic is an extended technique on a monophonic musical instrument (one which generally produces only one note at a time) in which several notes are produced at once. This includes wind, reed, and brass instruments, as well as the human voice. Multiphonic-like sounds on string instruments, both bowed and hammered, have also been called multiphonics, for lack of better terminology and scarcity of research. Multiphonics on wind instruments are primarily a 20th-century technique, first explicitly called for in Sequenza I for solo flute by Luciano Berio
Luciano Berio
and Proporzioni for solo flute by Franco Evangelisti,[citation needed] both composed in 1958, though the brass technique of singing while playing has been known since the 18th century and used by composers such as Carl Maria von Weber
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Johannes Lippius
Johannes Lippius (24 June 1585 – 24 September 1612) was a German Protestant theologian, philosopher, composer, and music theorist. He coined the term "harmonic triad" in his "Synopsis of New Music" (1612). Life[edit] Lippius was born in Strasbourg, the son of the pastor of St. Peter, Johann Lippius (1554-1622), and his wife Susanna Klehmann. In early childhood, he had already received education in languages and the seven liberal arts, which allowed him to be appointed at the University of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
to the Master of Philosophy at a young age. By his twenty-first birthday he had given private and university lectures, after which he entered the University of Leipzig, 1606, the University of Wittenberg, the University of Frankfurt (Oder), the University of Jena, where he became adjunct of the faculty of philosophy, and the University of Erfurt
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Christoph Bernhard
Christoph Bernhard (1 January 1628 – 14 November 1692) was born in Kolberg, Pomerania, and died in Dresden. He studied with former Sweelinck-pupil Paul Siefert
Paul Siefert
in Danzig
Danzig
(now Gdańsk) and in Warsaw. By the age of 20 he was singing at the electoral court in Dresden
Dresden
under Heinrich Schütz. He then spent a year in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
to study singing with Agostino Fontana. After his appointment as assistant kapellmeister in Dresden
Dresden
in 1655, Bernhard made two sojourns to Italy
Italy
to further his musical education. When he was 35, he moved to Hamburg
Hamburg
to work as the director of music for the Johanneum and for civic musical events
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