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Michael Creeth
James Michael Creeth (3 October 1924 – 15 January 2010) was an English biochemist whose experiments on DNA
DNA
viscosity confirming the existence of hydrogen bonds between the purine and pyrimidine bases of DNA
DNA
were crucial to Watson and Crick's discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. He was educated at Northampton
Northampton
Town and County Grammar School and went on to read Chemistry
Chemistry
at University College Nottingham,[1] [2] first as a war-time undergraduate (1942-44) and then as a postgraduate PhD student (1944-7) under the supervision of D. O. Jordan and John Masson Gulland. Creeth and the Decoding of DNA The research conducted by Creeth for his PhD [3] and more especially an associated paper [4] in 1947 was one key element amongst others which paved the way to the decoding of the complexities of DNA
DNA
in 1953 [5]
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Northampton
Northampton
Northampton
/nɔːrθˈæmptən/ ( listen) is the county town of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
in the East Midlands
East Midlands
of England. It lies on the River Nene, about 67 miles (108 km) north-west of London
London
and 50 miles (80 km) south-east of Birmingham. One of the largest towns in the UK,[1] Northampton
Northampton
had a population of 212,100 in the 2011 census. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
periods. During the Middle Ages, the town rose to national significance with the establishment of Northampton
Northampton
Castle, which was an occasional royal residence and regularly hosted the Parliament of England
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Northamptonshire
Coordinates: 52°17′N 0°50′W / 52.283°N 0.833°W / 52.283; -0.833NorthamptonshireCountyFlag Coat of armsMotto: Rosa concordiae signum[1] The rose, emblem of harmony Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
in EnglandSovereign state United KingdomCountry EnglandRegion East MidlandsCeremonial countyLord Lieutenant David Laing[2]High Sheriff Rupert Fordham[3]Area 2,364 km2 (913 sq mi) • Ranked 24th of 48Population (mid-2016 
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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The Biochemical Society
The Biochemical Society
Biochemical Society
is a learned society in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the field of biochemistry, including all the cellular and molecular biosciences.Contents1 Structure 2 History 3 Awards 4 Publishing 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] It currently has around 7000 members, two-thirds in the UK. It is affiliated with the European body, Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS). The Society's current President (2016) is Sir David Baulcombe.[1] The Society's headquarters are in London. History[edit] The society was founded in 1911 by Benjamin Moore, W.D. Halliburton and others, under the name of the Biochemical Club. It acquired the existing Biochemical Journal in 1912
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The Independent
The Independent
The Independent
is a British online newspaper.[2] Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch
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Glycoproteins
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are also often glycosylated. Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell–cell interactions
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Analytical Ultracentrifuge
The ultracentrifuge is a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating acceleration as high as 1 000 000 g (approx. 9 800 km/s²).[1] There are two kinds of ultracentrifuges, the preparative and the analytical ultracentrifuge. Both classes of instruments find important uses in molecular biology, biochemistry, and polymer science.[2]Contents1 History 2 Analytical ultracentrifuge 3 Preparative ultracentrifuge 4 Hazards 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Theodor Svedberg
Theodor Svedberg
invented the analytical ultracentrifuge in 1925,[3][4] and won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1926 for his research on colloids and proteins using the ultracentrifuge. The vacuum ultracentrifuge was invented by Edward Greydon Pickels in the Physics Department at the University of Virginia
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Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.[4] It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family. The Foundation was started by Standard Oil
Standard Oil
owner John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller
("Senior"), along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr
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Goswick Rail Crash
The Goswick
Goswick
rail crash occurred on 26 October 1947 near the village of Goswick, Northumberland, England. The Flying Scotsman express from Edinburgh Waverley to London King's Cross failed to slow down for a diversion and derailed. 28 people were killed, including the talented biochemist, John Masson Gulland.[1] It was the last major accident to occur on British railways before their nationalisation on 1 January 1948.Contents1 Overview 2 Similar accidents 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] The train was scheduled to divert from the fast line to a goods loop at Goswick, Northumberland, between Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
and Morpeth, because of engineering work. This required a significant reduction in speed, but the driver failed to react to a cautionary signal approaching the diversion and the train entered a 15 mph turnout at approximately 60 mph. The engine, A3 Class No
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The Double Helix
The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA
DNA
is an autobiographical account of the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA
DNA
written by James D. Watson
James D. Watson
and published in 1968. Watson is a U.S. molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick. In 1998, the Modern Library placed The Double Helix
The Double Helix
at number 7 on its list of the 100 best nonfiction books of the 20th century. In 2012, The Double Helix
The Double Helix
was named as one of the 88 "Books That Shaped America" by the Library of Congress. Though an important book about an immensely important subject, it was and remains a controversial account
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University College Nottingham
The University of Nottingham
Nottingham
is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham
Nottingham
in 1881, and was granted a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1948. Nottingham's main campus (University Park) and teaching hospital (Queen's Medical Centre) are on the outskirts of the City of Nottingham, with a number of smaller campuses and sites elsewhere in Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and Derbyshire. Outside the United Kingdom, the university has campuses in Semenyih, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Ningbo, China. Nottingham
Nottingham
is organised into five constituent faculties, within which there are more than 50 schools, departments, institutes and research centres
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Double Helix
In molecular biology, the term double helix[1] refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA. The double helical structure of a nucleic acid complex arises as a consequence of its secondary structure, and is a fundamental component in determining its tertiary structure. The term entered popular culture with the publication in 1968 of The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA,by James Watson The DNA
DNA
double helix polymer of nucleic acid, held together by nucleotides which base pair together.[2] In B-DNA, the most common double helical structure found in nature, the double helix is right-handed with about 10–10.5 base pairs per turn.[3] The double helix structure of DNA
DNA
contains a major groove and minor groove
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James D. Watson
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA
DNA
in 1953 with Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and Rosalind Franklin. Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material". Watson earned degrees at the University of Chicago
Chicago
(BS, 1947) and Indiana University
Indiana University
(PhD, 1950)
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