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Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
The MHADEI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY is a 208.5-km2 (80.5-mi2) protected area in the Indian state of Goa
Goa
in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
of South India
India
. It is located in the North Goa
Goa
District , Sattari
Sattari
taluka near the town of Valpoi . The sanctuary is an area of high biodiversity , and is being considered to become a Project Tiger
Project Tiger
tiger reserve because of the presence of resident Bengal tigers . CONTENTS * 1 Infrastructure * 2 Geography * 2.1 Waterfalls * 3 Fauna * 4 Flora * 4.1 Sacred groves * 5 Threats * 6 Mhadei tiger reserve * 6.1 Proposal * 6.2 Tiger presence * 7 References * 8 External sources INFRASTRUCTUREThe sanctuary is administered by the Goa
Goa
State Forest Department
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Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
NETRAVALI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY is located in South Eastern Goa , India . It constitutes one of the vital corridors of the Western Ghats and covers an area of 211.05 km2. Netravali or Neturli is an important tributary of River Zuari, which originates in the sanctuary. Forests mostly consist of moist deciduous vegetation interspersed with evergreen and semi-evergreen habitat. It is adjacent to Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve , Karnataka on the eastern side, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary , Goa on the southern side and Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park on the northern side which in turn forms a contiguous protected area along with Madei Wildlife Sanctuary , Goa and Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary , Karnataka. FLORA AND FAUNAThe sanctuary sustains a good mammal population due to its rich habitat and plenty of perennial streams
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Gyps Indicus
Gyps indicus indicus The INDIAN VULTURE ( Gyps indicus) is an Old World vulture native to India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Nepal. It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
since 2002, as the population severely declined. Indian vultures died of renal failure caused by diclofenac poisoning. It breeds mainly on hilly crags in central and peninsular India
India
. The birds in the northern part of its range once considered a subspecies are now treated as a separate species, the slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris. These were lumped together under the name LONG-BILLED VULTURE. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Behaviour * 3 Status and conservation * 3.1 Population declines * 3.2 Captive-breeding programmes * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONThe Indian vulture is medium in size and bulky
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Plumeria Rubra
PLUMERIA RUBRA is a deciduous plant species belonging to the genus Plumeria
Plumeria
. Originally native to Mexico, Central America, Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela, it has been widely cultivated in subtropical and tropical climates worldwide and is a popular garden and park plant, as well as being used in temples and cemeteries. It grows as a spreading tree to 7–8 m (23–26 ft) high and wide, and is flushed with fragrant flowers of shades of pink, white and yellow over the summer and autumn. Its common names include FRANGIPANI, RED PAUCIPAN, RED-JASMINE, RED FRANGIPANI, COMMON FRANGIPANI, TEMPLE TREE, or simply PLUMERIA
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Biodiversity Hotspot
A BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction. For example forests are considered as biodiversity hotspots. On listed world 34/35 biodiversity hotspots are present. Norman Myers wrote about the concept in two articles in “The Environmentalist” (1988), "> Biodiversity
Biodiversity
hotspots. Original proposal in green, and added regions in blue
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Endemism
ENDEMISM is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution . An alternative term for a species that is endemic is PRECINCTIVE, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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Escarpment
An ESCARPMENT is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations. Usually escarpment is used interchangeably with SCARP (from the Italian scarpa, shoe ). But some sources differentiate the two terms, where escarpment refers to the margin between two landforms, while scarp is synonymous with a cliff or steep slope. The surface of the steep slope is called a scarp face.This (escarpment) is a ridge which has a gentle(dip) slope on one side and a steep (scarp) slope on the other side
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Panaji
PANAJI /ˈpʌnədʒiː/ or PANJIM (Konkani : Ponnje ) is the capital of the Indian state of Goa
Goa
and the headquarters of North Goa district. It lies on the banks of the Mandovi River estuary in the Ilhas de Goa
Goa
sub-district (taluka). With a population of 114,759 in the metropolitan area, Panjim is Goa's largest Urban agglomeration
Urban agglomeration
, ahead of Margão and Vasco da Gama . Panjim has terraced hills, concrete buildings with balconies and red-tiled roofs, churches, and a riverside promenade. There are avenues lined with gulmohar , acacia and other trees. The Baroque
Baroque
Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church is located overlooking the main square known as Praça da Igreja. Colourful villas, cobbled streets and interesting buildings help Panaji
Panaji
retain its Portuguese ambiance and culture
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Belgaum
BELGAUM (officially known as BELAGAVI, and earlier known "Venugrama" or the "Bamboo Village", ) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka . It is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Belgaum division and Belgaum district . The Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
has proposed making Belgaum
Belgaum
the second capital of Karnataka, hence a second state administrative building Suvarna Vidhana Soudha was inaugurated on 11 October 2012. Belgaum
Belgaum
has been selected in first phase out of 20 cities, as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi\'s flagship Smart Cities Mission
Smart Cities Mission

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Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary And Mollem National Park
BHAGWAN MAHAVEER SANCTUARY AND MOLLEM NATIONAL PARK is a 240 square kilometres (93 sq mi) protected area located in the Western Ghats of South India , in Sanguem taluk , Goa along the eastern border with Karnataka . The area is situated near the town of Molem , 57 kilometres (35 mi) east of Panaji , the state capital of Goa. National Highway 4A divides it into two parts and the Mormugao - Londa railway line passes through the area. It is located between 15°15"30' to 15°29"30' N and 74°10"15' to 74°20"15' E. It contains several important temples dating to the Kadamba Dynasty , and Dudhsagar Falls . The parkland is also home to a community of nomadic buffalo herders known as the Dhangar
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Mandovi River
The MAHADAYI/MANDOVI RIVER (Mandovi, pronounced ), also known as MAHADAYI or MHADEI river, is described as the lifeline of the Indian state of Goa
Goa
. The river has a length of 77 kilometres (48 miles), 29 kilometres (18 miles) in Karnataka
Karnataka
and 52 kilometres (32 miles) in Goa. It originates from a cluster of 30 springs at Bhimgad in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
in the Belgaum
Belgaum
district of Karnataka. The river has a 2,032 km2 catchment area in Karnataka
Karnataka
and a 1,580 km2 catchment area in Goa. With its cerulean waters, Dudhsagar Falls and Varapoha Falls , it is also known as the Gomati in a few places. The Mandovi and the Zuari are the two primary rivers in the state of Goa
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Arabian Sea
The ARABIAN SEA is a region of the northern Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
bounded on the north by Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran
Iran
, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula , and on the east by India
India
. Historically the sea has been known by other names including the Erythraean Sea
Sea
and the Persian Sea
Sea
. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
is in the southwest, connecting the Arabian Sea
Sea
to the Red Sea
Sea
through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb , and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf
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Conservation International
CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia . Its goal is to protect nature as a source of food, fresh water, livelihoods and a stable climate. CI's work focuses on science, policy, and partnership with businesses and communities. The organization employs more than 1,000 people and works with more than 2,000 partners in 30 countries. CI has helped support 1,200 protected areas and interventions across 77 countries, safeguarding more than 601 million hectares of land, marine and coastal areas. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Growth and mission shift * 2 Approach to conservation * 3 Criticism * 4 Leadership * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Conservation International
Conservation International
was founded in 1987 with the goal of protecting nature for the benefit of people
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Mammal
MAMMALS are the vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones , and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Ruddy Mongoose
The RUDDY MONGOOSE (Herpestes smithii) is a species of mongoose found in hill forests of peninsular India and Sri Lanka . This mongoose, along with the striped-neck and Indian grey mongeese , are the only mongoose species endemic to India and Sri Lanka. The ruddy mongoose is very closely related to Indian grey mongoose, but distinguished by its slightly larger size and black-tipped tail extending for 2 to 3 inches at the distal end. There are two sub-species of this mongoose, H. smithii smithii in India, and H. smithii zeylanicus (Thomas, 1852) in Sri Lanka. A ruddy mongoose in Panna Tiger Reserve, India CONTENTS * 1 Habitat * 2 Ecology * 3 In Culture * 4 See also * 5 References HABITATThe ruddy mongoose is mainly a forest -living animal, in contrast to the grey and small Indian mongooses and prefers more secluded areas. They have also been recorded from secluded paddy fields and in comparatively open fields
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Asian Palm Civet
The ASIAN PALM CIVET (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), also called TODDY CAT, is a small member of the family Viverridae native to South and Southeast Asia . In 2008, the IUCN classified the species as Least Concern as it is tolerant of a broad range of habitats . It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In 2012, it was suggested that recent increases in capturing the animals for Kopi Luwak (Civet Coffee) production may constitute a significant threat to wild palm civet populations
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