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Mexican Food
Mexican cuisine
Mexican cuisine
began 9,000 years ago, 7,000 BC, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways. Successive waves of other Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
groups, including the Olmec, Teotihuacanos, Toltec, Huastec, Zapotec, Mixtec, Otomi, and Purépecha, brought with them their own cooking methods. The Mexica
Mexica
establishment of the Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
created a multi-ethnic society where many different foodways became infused
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Tomato
Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H. Karst. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.[1]The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, vegetable of the plant Solanum
Solanum
lycopersicum,[2] commonly known as a tomato plant. The plant belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[1] The species originated in western South America.[2][3] The Nahuatl
Nahuatl
(Aztec language) word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word "tomate", from which the English word tomato derived.[3][4] Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of México.[2][5] The Spanish discovered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec peoples during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, then brought it to Europe, and, from there, to other parts of the European colonized world during the 16th century.[2] Tomato
Tomato
is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks
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Zapotec Civilization
The Zapotec civilization
Zapotec civilization
was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
in Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence shows that their culture goes back at least 2,500 years. The Zapotec left archaeological evidence at the ancient city of Monte Albán in the form of buildings, ball courts, magnificent tombs and grave goods including finely worked gold jewelry
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Mole Sauce
Mole (/ˈmoʊleɪ/, /ˈmoʊli/ Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmole]; from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
mōlli, "sauce") is the generic name for a number of sauces originally used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces. Outside Mexico, it often refers specifically to mole poblano
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Maya Civilization
The Maya civilization
Maya civilization
was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system. The Maya civilization
Maya civilization
developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala
Guatemala
and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras
Honduras
and El Salvador
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Nixtamalization
Nixtamalization
Nixtamalization
/nɪʃtəməlaɪˈzeɪʃən/ typically refers to a process for the preparation of maize (corn), or other grain, in which the corn is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater (but sometimes wood ash lye[1]) washed, and then hulled. This process is known to remove up to 97–100% of aflatoxins from mycotoxin-contaminated corn.[2] The term can also refer to the removal via an alkali process of the pericarp from other grains such as sorghum. Nixtamalized maize has several benefits over unprocessed grain: it is more easily ground; its nutritional value is increased; flavor and aroma are improved; and mycotoxins are reduced. Lime and ash are highly alkaline: the alkalinity helps the dissolution of hemicellulose, the major glue-like component of the maize cell walls, and loosens the hulls from the kernels and softens the maize
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Maya Cuisine
Ancient Maya cuisine
Maya cuisine
was varied and extensive. Many different types of resources were consumed, including maritime, flora, and faunal material, and food was obtained or produced through a host of strategies, such as hunting, foraging, and large-scale agricultural production. Plant
Plant
domestication focused on several core foods, the most important of which was maize. Much of the Maya food supply was grown in agricultural fields and forest gardens, known as pet kot.[1] The system takes its name from the low wall of stones (pet meaning "circular" and kot "wall of loose stones") that characteristically surrounds the gardens. The Maya adopted a number of adaptive techniques that, if necessary, allowed for the clear-cutting of land and re-infused the soil with nutrients. Among these was slash-and-burn, or swidden, agriculture, a technique that cleared and temporarily fertilized the area
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Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico
Mexico
through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
in the 15th and 16th centuries.[1][2] It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas
Americas
along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures
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Olmec
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz
Veracruz
and Tabasco. It has been speculated that the Olmecs derive in part from neighboring Mokaya
Mokaya
or Mixe–Zoque. The Olmecs flourished during Mesoamerica's formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE
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Teotihuacan
Coordinates: 19°41′33″N 98°50′38″W / 19.69250°N 98.84389°W / 19.69250; -98.84389TeotihuacánView of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon.Location of the site Show map of Mesoamerica Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
(Mexico) Show map of Mexico Teotihuacan
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Toltec
The Toltec
Toltec
culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico
Mexico
in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology
Mesoamerican chronology
(ca. 900–1168 CE). The later Aztec
Aztec
culture saw the Toltecs as their intellectual and cultural predecessors and described Toltec
Toltec
culture emanating from Tōllān [ˈtoːlːaːn] ( Nahuatl
Nahuatl
for Tula) as the epitome of civilization; in the Nahuatl language
Nahuatl language
the word Tōltēcatl [toːlˈteːkat͡ɬ] (singular) or Tōltēcah [toːlˈteːkaʔ] (plural) came to take on the meaning "artisan"
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Huastec Civilization
The Huastec civilization
Huastec civilization
(sometimes spelled Huaxtec or Wastek) was a pre-Columbian civilization of Mesoamerica, occupying a territory on the Gulf coast of Mexico
Mexico
that included the northern portion of Veracruz
Veracruz
state, and neighbouring regions of the states of Hidalgo, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, and Tamaulipas.[1] The Huastec people were an early offshoot of the Maya peoples
Maya peoples
that migrated northwards.[2] Surviving remains from the Huastec civilization
Huastec civilization
include several large archaeological sites, a well-preserved temple, and a large amount of stone sculpture. By the Late Postclassic (c
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Mixtec
The Mixtec
Mixtec
/ˈmiːstɛk/, /ˈmiːʃtɛk/,[3] or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico
Mexico
inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca
La Mixteca
of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
and Puebla
Puebla
as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero
Guerrero
and Puebla. The Mixtec
Mixtec
region and the Mixtec
Mixtec
peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen
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Culture Of Mexico
The culture of Mexico
Mexico
reflects the country's complex history and is the result of the gradual blending of native culture (particularly Mesoamerican) with Spanish culture and other immigrant cultures. First inhabited more than 10,000 years ago, the cultures that developed in Mexico
Mexico
became one of the cradles of civilization. During the 300-year rule by the Spanish, Mexico
Mexico
became a crossroad for the people and cultures of Europe, Africa and Asia. The government of independent Mexico
Mexico
actively promoted shared cultural traits in order to create a national identity. The culture of an individual Mexican is influenced by their familial ties, gender, religion, location and social class, among other factors
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Otomi People
The Otomi
Otomi
(/ˌoʊtəˈmiː/; Spanish: Otomí [otoˈmi]) are an indigenous people of Mexico
Mexico
inhabiting the central Mexican Plateau (Altiplano) region.Contents1 Overview 2 Etymology 3 Language 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksOverview
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Tarascan State
The Tarascan state
Tarascan state
was a state in pre-Columbian Mexico, roughly covering the geographic area of the present-day Mexican state of Michoacán, parts of Jalisco, and Guanajuato. At the time of the Spanish conquest, it was the second-largest state in Mesoamerica.[2] The state was founded in the early 14th century and lost its independence to the Spanish in 1530. In 1543 it officially became the governorship of Michoacán, from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
name for the Tarascan state, Michoacán
Michoacán
("place of those who have fish"). The Tarascan state
Tarascan state
was constituted of a network of tributary systems and gradually became increasingly centralized, under the control of the ruler of the state called the cazonci
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