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Mexican War Of Independence
Mexican independence First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
gains independence from Spain Signing of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican EmpireTerritorial changes Spain
Spain
loses the continental area of Viceroyalty of New SpainBelligerents Insurgents Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees
(1821) Spanish Empire Mexican royalistsCommanders and leaders Miguel Hidalgo  (1810–11) Ignacio Allende  (1810–11) Ignacio López R. † (1810–11) José María Morelos  (1810–15) Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Guerrero
(1810–21) Mariano Matamoros  (1811–14) Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
(1812–21) Francisco Xavier Mina  (1817) Agustín de Iturbide (1821) Ferdinand VII Francisco Venegas (1810–13) Félix María Calleja (1813–16) Juan Ruiz de A
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Capital Punishment
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Etymologically, the term capital (lit
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Celebration Of Mexican Political Anniversaries In 2010
An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is the initial occurrence or, if planned, the inaugural of the event. One year later would be the first anniversary of that event. The word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints. Most countries celebrate national anniversaries, typically called national days. These could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new constitution or form of government
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Agustín De Iturbide
Iturbide may refer to: Iturbide (surname) House of Iturbide, royal house of MexicoAgustín de IturbideIturbide, Nuevo León Iturbide Bridge, a locale of the Tampico Affair Villa de Hidalgo, San Luis PotosíThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Iturbide. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Royalist (Spanish American Independence)
The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire
Empire
(Spanish: Imperio Español) was one of the largest empires in history. At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines.[1] From the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World.[2][3] The crown's main source of wealth was from gold and silver mined in Mexico
Mexico
and Peru. The empire reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs,[4] through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the 18th century
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Ferdinand VII Of Spain
Ferdinand VII (Spanish: Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired (el Deseado) and to his detractors as the Felon King (el Rey Felón). After being overthrown by Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in 1814, he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814–33 and jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low. Historian Stanley Payne says:He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history
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Edmundo O'Gorman
Edmundo O'Gorman O'Gorman (24 November 1906 in Mexico City
Mexico City
– 28 September 1995 in Mexico
Mexico
City) was a Mexican writer, historian and philosopher. He is considered as being among the earlier and most influential applicants of historical revisionism to commonly held narratives regarding the Spanish colonial period in Latin America.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Achievements 4 Books 5 References 6 External linksEarly life and education[edit] O'Gorman was born in Coyoacán, in the southern part of Mexico
Mexico
City. He was the son of painter and mining engineer Cecil Crawford O'Gorman, an Irishman who emigrated to Mexico
Mexico
in 1895, and the great-great-nephew of the first British consul to Mexico
Mexico
City, Charles O'Gorman, who later married a Mexican citizen
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Killed In Action
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez Y Sicardo
Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo
Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo
(1769 – 1822) was a Spanish general in New Spain
Spain
and interim viceroy of the colony from July 5, 1821 to July 21, 1821, during the Mexican war of independence. Biography[edit] A previous viceroy, Félix María Calleja del Rey, 1st Count of Calderón, had established a fort in the old tobacco warehouse in Mexico City, named La Ciudadela. Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, Novella's predecessor, converted it into a storehouse for arms and munitions, but these were slowly being pilfered. He ordered Brigadier Francisco Novella to take charge of La Ciudadela and stop the thievery. Novella considered that task beneath his dignity, and was able to enlist the support of the Audiencia of Mexico
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Battle Of El Maguey
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Battle Of Tecualoya
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Battle Of Tenango Del Valle
Tenango (Nahuatl: "wall of the gods") may mean: Tenango del Aire, Edomex Tenango de Arista, in the municipality of Tenango del Valle, Edomex Tenango, Chiapas Tenango, Morelos
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Capture Of Orizaba
Capture may refer to:Asteroid capture, a phenomenon in which an asteroid enters a stable orbit around another body "Capture" a song by Simon Townshend Capture (band), an Australian electronicore band previously known as Capture the Crown Capture (chess), to remove the opponent's piece from the board by taking it with on
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Juan Ruiz De Apodaca, 1st Count Of Venadito
Juan José Ruiz de Apodaca
Apodaca
y Eliza Gastón de Iriarte López de Letona y Lasqueti, count of Venadito (3 February 1754, Cadiz, Spain
Spain
– 11 January 1835, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish naval officer and viceroy of New Spain
Spain
from 20 September 1816 to 5 July 1821, during Mexico's War of Independence.Contents1 Military career 2 As viceroy of New Spain 3 The Plan de Iturbide 4 The Plan de Iguala 5 The overthrow of Ruiz de Apodaca 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksMilitary career[edit] Ruiz de Apodaca
Apodaca
was born in Cádiz into a family of renowned Basque merchants.[1] He entered the navy in 1767 and took part in the campaign against Algerian pirates. In 1770 he was promoted to the rank of ensign
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