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Metropolitan Peter
SAINT PETER, METROPOLITAN OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA (Russian : Пётр; died on 20 December 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from Vladimir to Moscow
Moscow
in 1325. Later he was proclaimed a patron saint of Moscow
Moscow
. In spite of the move, the office remained officially entitled "Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus\' " until the autocephalous election of St. Jonah in 1448. LIFEPeter was born in Galicia–Volhynia
Galicia–Volhynia
. His parents were Theodore and Eupraxia. At the age of twelve, young Peter entered a monastery where he learned iconography. The igumen of the monastery had St Peter ordained as a hieromonk. After years of ascetic labors at the monastery, the hieromonk Peter, with the blessing of the igumen, left the monastery in search of a solitary place. He built a cell at the Rata River and began to pursue asceticism in silence
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Synaxarion
SYNAXARION or SYNEXARION (plurals SYNAXARIA, SYNEXARIA; Greek : Συναξάριον, from συνάγειν, synagein, "to bring together"; cf. etymology of synaxis and synagogue ; Latin: Synaxarium, Synexarium) is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding roughly to the martyrology of the Roman Church . There are two kinds of synaxaria: * SIMPLE SYNAXARIA: lists of the saints arranged in the order of their anniversaries, e.g. the calendar of Morcelli * HISTORICAL SYNAXARIA: including biographical notices, e.g. the Menologion of Basil II and the synaxarium of Sirmond . The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year
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Dionisius
DIONISIUS (Russian : Диони́сий, variously transliterated as Dionisy, Dionysiy, etc., also DIONISIUS THE WISE) (ca. 1440 – 1502) was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow
Moscow
school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. His style of painting is sometimes termed "the Muscovite mannerism ". Dionisy's first important commission was a series of icons for the Cathedral of the Dormition
Cathedral of the Dormition
in the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin , executed in 1481. The figures on his icons are famously elongated, the hands and feet are diminutive, and the faces serene and peaceful. Among his many rich and notable patrons, Joseph of Volokolamsk alone commissioned him to paint more than eighty icons, primarily for the Joseph-Volokolamsk and Pavel-Obnorsk cloisters
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Tver
TVER (Russian : Тверь; IPA: ; IPA: ) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast
Tver Oblast
, Russia
Russia
. Population: 414,606 (2015 est.); 403,606 (2010 Census ); 408,903 (2002 Census ); 450,941 (1989 Census ). Located 180 kilometres (110 mi) northwest of Moscow
Moscow
, Tver
Tver
was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, with a population of 60,000 on January 14, 1913. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa Rivers . The city was known as KALININ (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990
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Grand Prince
The title GRAND PRINCE or GREAT PRINCE ( Latin
Latin
: magnus princeps, Greek : megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince . Grand duke
Grand duke
is the usual and established, though not literal , translation of these terms in English and Romance languages , which do not normally use separate words for a "prince" who reigns as a monarch (e.g., Albert II, Prince
Prince
of Monaco ) and a "prince" who does not reign, but belongs to a monarch's family (e.g., Prince
Prince
William, Duke of Cambridge ). German, Dutch, Slavic and Scandinavian languages do use separate words to express this concept, and in those languages grand prince is understood as a distinct title (for a cadet of a dynasty ) from grand duke (hereditary ruler ranking below a king). The title of grand prince was once used for the sovereign of a "grand principality"
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Patriarch Of Constantinople
The ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH (Greek : Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople
Constantinople
New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church . He is widely regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the 300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide. The term Ecumenical
Ecumenical
in the title is a historical reference to the Ecumene
Ecumene
, a Greek designation for the civilised world, i.e
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The History Of Cities And Villages Of The Ukrainian SSR
THE HISTORY OF CITIES AND VILLAGES OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR (Ukrainian : Історія міст і сіл Української РСР) is a Ukrainian encyclopedia, published in 26 volumes. It provides knowledge about the history of all populated places in Ukraine . It was approved by the Communist Party of Ukraine in 1962 and published for the first time the very same year. The chief editor was the noted scholar and historian Petro Tronko . This is the first thorough historical work of its kind. Each volume covered the history of all populated places in different regions of Ukraine, and at that time they numbered almost 40,000. The encyclopedia played an important role in collecting materials for writing essays about the villages. The encyclopedia was compiled by the State Historical Library of Ukraine together with the NASU Institute of History of Ukraine (part of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , NASU)
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Moscow Kremlin
The MOSCOW KREMLIN (Russian : Моско́вский Кремль, tr. Moskovskiy Kreml; IPA: ), usually referred to as THE KREMLIN, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow , overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil\'s Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins (Russian citadels ) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers . Also within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace
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Relic
In religion, a RELIC usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of some forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
, Christianity
Christianity
, Islam
Islam
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Shamanism , and many other religions. Relic
Relic
derives from the Latin
Latin
reliquiae, meaning "remains", and a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to "leave behind, or abandon". A reliquary is a shrine that houses one or more religious relics
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Translation (relics)
In Christianity
Christianity
, the TRANSLATION of relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality to another (usually a higher status location); usually only the movement of the remains of the saint's body would be treated so formally, with secondary relics such as items of clothing treated with less ceremony. Translations could be accompanied by many acts, including all-night vigils and processions, often involving entire communities. The solemn translation (in Latin
Latin
, translatio) of relics is not treated as the outward recognition of sanctity. Rather, miracles confirmed a saint's sanctity, as evinced by the fact that when, in the twelfth century, the Papacy attempted to make sanctification an 'official' process; many collections of miracles were written in the hope of providing proof of the saint-in-question's status
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian Church
Christian Church
, with over 250 million members. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, Greece
Greece
(including Anatolia
Anatolia
), the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and the Near East . A communion of autocephalous churches (″jurisdictions″, or national churches), each typically governed by its own Holy Synod , its bishops are equal by virtue of ordination , with doctrines summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Canonization
CANONIZATION is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint , upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. Originally, persons were recognized as saints without any formal process. Later, different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
, Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and Roman Catholic Church
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Epistle
An EPISTLE (/ᵻˈpɪsəl/ ; Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curriculum. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Those traditionally attributed to Paul are known as Pauline epistles and the others as catholic (i.e., "general") epistles
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Sermon
A SERMON is an oration , lecture , or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy . Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon often include exposition, exhortation and practical application. In Christianity, a sermon is usually delivered in a place of worship from an elevated architectural feature, variously known as a pulpit , a lectern , or an ambo . The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French
Old French
, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". The word can mean "conversation", which could mean that early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, and that only later did it come to mean a monologue
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Boleslaw-Yuri II Of Galicia
BOLESłAW-JERZY II (1305/1310 – April 7, 1340) was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia . After his death started the Galicia–Volhynia Wars over succession of Galicia and Volhynia. Bolesław was born between 1305 and 1310 to Trojden I of Masovia from the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
, Duke of Czersk and Maria, daughter of Yuri I , prince of Galicia . Since his father was still a ruler of the family's Masovian lands, in 1323 Bolesław, renamed Jerzy, became Prince of Galicia. He also received the Duchy of Belz after the childless death of Andrew of Galicia . In 1331 he married daughter of Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Gediminas
Gediminas
and sister of Aldona of Lithuania , wife of Casimir III of Poland
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Encyclopedia Of Ukraine
The ENCYCLOPEDIA OF UKRAINE (Ukrainian : Енциклопедія українознавства) is a fundamental work of Ukrainian Studies created under the auspices of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Europe ( Sarcelles , near Paris
Paris
). As the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF UKRAINIAN STUDIES it conditionally consists of two parts, the general part (1949-1952) that includes three volumes and the dictionary part (1955–89) that includes 10 volumes. It was published in Ukraine since 1991. Volodymyr Kubiyovych was the editor-in-chief of Volumes I and II (published in 1984 and 1988 respectively)
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