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Methylestradiol
Methylestradiol, sold under the brand names Ginecosid, Ginecoside, Mediol, and Renodiol, is an estrogen medication which is used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.[2][3][4] It is formulated in combination with normethandrone, a progestin and androgen/anabolic steroid medication.[3][4] Methylestradiol
Methylestradiol
is taken by mouth.[1] Side effects of methylestradiol include nausea, breast tension, edema, and breakthrough bleeding among others.[5] It is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol.[6]
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Aldosterone
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.[1][2] It is essential for sodium conservation in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon.[3] It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+) levels
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Water Retention (medicine)
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.[1][2] Water
Water
is found both inside and outside the body’s cells. It forms part of the blood, helping to carry the blood cells around the body and keeping oxygen and important nutrients in solution so that they can be taken up by tissues such as glands, bone and muscle. Even the organs and muscles are mostly water. The body uses a complex system of hormones and hormone-like substances called prostaglandins to keep its volume of fluid at a constant level. If one were to intake an excessive amount of fluid in one day, the amount of fluid would not be affected in the long term. This is because the kidneys quickly excrete the excess in the form of urine. Likewise, if one did not get enough to drink, the body would hold on to its fluids and urinate less than usual
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Brazil
Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese) (English: "Order and Progress")Anthem: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")Flag anthem: Hino à Bandeira Nacional[1] (English: "National Flag Anthem")National sealSelo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of BrazilLocation of  Brazil  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Br
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Venezuela
Coordinates: 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[a]República Bolivariana de Venezuela  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Dios y Federación (English: "God and Federation")Anthem: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo (English: "Glory to the Brave People")Capital and largest city Caracas 10°30′N 66°55′W / 10.500°N 66.917°W / 10.500; -66.917Official languages SpanishbRecognized regional languages Indigenous languagesEthnic groups (2011[1])51.6% Mestizo 43.6% White 3.6% Black / Afrodescendant 1.2% Amerindians
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)FlagNational emblemMotto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal

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Radiopharmaceutical
Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity. Radiopharmaceuticals can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Radiopharmaceuticals emit radiation themselves, which is different from contrast media which absorb or alter external electromagnetism or ultrasound. Radiopharmacology
Radiopharmacology
is the branch of pharmacology that specializes in these agents. The main group of these compounds are the radiotracers used to diagnose dysfunction in body tissues
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Menopausal Symptom
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.[2][8] Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.[3] Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year.[4] It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries.[9] In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell.[9] Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.[10] Before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular,[11] which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow.[11] During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds t
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Affinity (pharmacology)
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. The binding typically results in a change of conformation of the target protein. In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. The relationship between ligand and binding partner is a function of charge, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. The instance of binding occurs over an infinitesimal range of time and space, so the rate constant is usually a very small number. Binding occurs by intermolecular forces, such as ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. The association of docking is actually reversible through dissociation. Measurably irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and target molecule is atypical in biological systems
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Active Metabolite
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.Contents1 Metabolites of drugs 2 Prodrugs 3 References 4 Further readingMetabolites of drugs[edit] An active metabolite results when a drug is metabolized by the body into a modified form which continues to produce effects in the body. Usually these effects are similar to those of the parent drug but weaker, although they can still be significant (see e.g. 11-hydroxy-THC, morphine-6-glucuronide). Certain drugs such as codeine and tramadol have metabolites (morphine and O-desmethyltramadol respectively) that are stronger than the parent drug[1][2][3] and in these cases the metabolite may be responsible for much of the therapeutic action of the parent drug. Sometimes, however, metabolites may produce toxic effects and patients must be monitored carefully to ensure they do not build up in the body
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Gynecomastia
Gynecomastia
Gynecomastia
is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.[3][4][a] Psychological distress may occur. The development of gynecomastia is usually associated with benign pubertal changes
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Progesterone Receptor
4OAR, 1A28, 1E3K, 1SQN, 1SR7, 1ZUC, 2C7A, 2OVH, 2OVM, 2W8Y, 3D90, 3G8O, 3HQ5, 3KBA, 3ZR7, 3ZRA, 3ZRB, 4A2J, 4APU, 5CC0IdentifiersAliases PGR, NR3C3, PR, progesterone receptorExternal IDs MGI: 97567 HomoloGene: 713 GeneCards: PGR Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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Agonist
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist, and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist.Contents1 Types of agonists 2 Activity2.1 Potency 2.2 Therapeutic index3 Etymology 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes of agonists[edit] Receptors can be activated by either endogenous agonists (such as hormones and neurotransmitters) or exogenous agonists (such as drugs), resulting in a biological response. A physiological agonist is a substance that creates the same bodily responses but does not bind to the same receptor.An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor
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Androgen Receptor
1E3G, 1GS4, 1T5Z, 1T63, 1T65, 1XJ7, 1XOW, 1XQ3, 1Z95, 2AM9, 2AMA, 2AMB, 2AO6, 2AX6, 2AX7, 2AX8, 2AX9, 2AXA, 2HVC, 2OZ7, 2PIO, 2PIP, 2PIQ, 2PIR, 2PIT, 2PIU, 2PIV, 2PIW, 2PIX, 2PKL, 2PNU, 2Q7I, 2Q7J, 2Q7K, 2YHD, 2YLO, 2YLP, 2YLQ, 2Z4J, 3B5R, 3B65, 3B66, 3B67, 3B68, 3BTR, 3V49, 3V4A, 3ZQT, 4HLW, 3L3X, 3L3Z, 3RLJ, 3RLL, 4K7A, 4OEA, 4OED, 4OEY, 4OEZ, 4OFR, 4OFU, 4OGH, 4OH5, 4OH6, 4OHA, 4OIL, 4OIU, 4OJ9, 4OJB, 4OK1, 4OKB, 4OKT, 4OKW, 4OKX, 4OLM, 4QL8, 5CJ6IdentifiersAliases AR, AIS, AR8, DHTR, HUMARA, HYSP1, KD, NR3C4, SBMA, SMAX1, TFM, androgen receptorExternal IDs OMIM: 313700 MGI: 88064 HomoloGene: 28 GeneCards: AR Gene
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Glucocorticoid Receptor
1M2Z, 1NHZ, 1P93, 3BQD, 3CLD, 3E7C, 3H52, 3K22, 3K23, 4CSJ, 4HN5, 4HN6, 4LSJ, 4MDD, 4P6W, 4P6X, 5CBY, 5CBX, 4UDC, 4UDD, 5CBZ, 5CC1, 5EMQ, 5EMC, 5EMPIdentifiersAliases NR3C1, GCCR, GCR, GCRST, GR, GRL, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1, Glucocorticoid
Glucocorticoid
ReceptorExternal IDs MGI: 95824 HomoloGene: 30960 GeneCards: NR3C1 Gene
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Mineralocorticoid Receptor
1Y9R, 1YA3, 2A3I, 2AA2, 2AA5, 2AA6, 2AA7, 2AAX, 2AB2, 2ABI, 2OAX, 3VHU, 3VHV, 3WFF, 3WFG, 4PF3, 4TNT, 4UDB, 4UDA, 5HCVIdentifiersAliases NR3C2, MCR, MLR, MR, NR3C2VIT, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 2External IDs MGI: 99459 HomoloGene: 121495 GeneCards: NR3C2 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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