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Messali Hadj
Ahmed Ben Messali Hadj, commonly known as Messali Hadj, Arabic: مصالي الحاج‎, was an Algerian nationalist politician dedicated to the independence of his homeland from French colonial rule. He is often called the "father" of Algerian nationalism.[2] He co-founded the Étoile nord-africaine, and founded the Parti du peuple algérien and the Mouvement pour le triomphe des libertés démocratiques before dissociating himself from the armed struggle for Independence in 1954
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Socialist
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Brazzaville
Brazzaville
Brazzaville
(French pronunciation: ​[bʁazavil]) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa. Its population is estimated to exceed 1.8 million. Over a third of the population of the Republic of Congo lives in the capital, and it is home to 40% of non-agricultural employment. It is also a financial and administrative capital.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Demographics 4 Government 5 Economy 6 Buildings and institutions 7 Education 8 Climate 9 Transport 10 Notable people 11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References14.1 Bibliography15 Notes 16 External linksGeography[edit] Kinshasa
Kinshasa
seen from Brazzaville
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French Equatorial Africa
French Equatorial Africa (French: Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River
Congo River
into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.Contents1 History 2 Administration 3 Geography 4 Postage stamps 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksHistory[edit] Established in 1910, the federation contained four (later five) colonial possessions: French Gabon, French Congo, Oubangui-Chari
Oubangui-Chari
and French Chad. Following World War I, French Cameroon
French Cameroon
was added, although it was not organized as a separate entity until 1920
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Sétif
Setif (Berber: Ẓḍif or Sṭif, Arabic: سطيف‎, Latin: Sitifis) is an Algerian city and the capital of the Stif Province, it is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria
Algeria
and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country. It is an inner city, situated in the eastern side of Algeria, at 270 kilometers east of Algiers, at 131 km west of Constantine, in the Hautes Plaines
Hautes Plaines
region south of Kabylie
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Constantinois
Constantinois
Constantinois
is a cultural and historical region of the Maghreb, located in northeastern Algeria.[1]Contents1 Geography1.1 Topography2 See also 3 ReferencesGeography[edit] The region corresponds roughly to six contemporary wilayas: Constantine Province, Annaba Province, Guelma Province, Skikda Province, Souk Ahras Province, and Tébessa Province. The capital of the region is the city of Constantine. Topography[edit] A large part of
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Special Organisation (Algeria)
The Special
Special
Organisation (French: Organisation spéciale) was a secret paramilitary organisation in colonial Algeria, founded by Mohamed Belouizdad of the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD) in 1947 to prepare for armed struggle against France, which ruled Algeria
Algeria
as a colony since 1830. The turn towards guerrilla warfare was in large part encouraged by the reactions to the Sétif massacre in 1945, and other examples of violent repression, which had convinced many Algerian activists that peaceful political work would be pointless. The OS had around 1500-2000 members at its peak, and spawned the groups that would later form the FLN; this group, in turn, became the leading force in the Algerian War of Independence
Algerian War of Independence
(1954–1962), and later Algeria's single ruling party until 1989. The OS was dismantled by French police in 1951, and many members imprisoned
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Arabism
Pan-Arabism or Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Armée De Libération Nationale
The National Liberation Army or ALN (Arabic, جيش التحرير الوطني الجزائري Djaïche Al-Tehrir Al-Ouatani Al-Djezaïr; French, Armée de libération nationale) was the armed wing of the nationalist Front de Libération National (FLN) during the Algerian War. After the independence of Algeria
Algeria
from France
France
in 1962, the ALN was converted into the regular armed forces of the republic, but its leadership also came to play a prominent role in Algerian politics, as in the 1965 coup d'état by Col. Houari Boumediene. References[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Liberation Army (Algeria).This Algeria-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis African military article is a stub
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Islamism
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey texts<
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Guerrilla Warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.[1] Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.Contents1 Etymology 2 Strategy, tactics and methods2.1 Strategy 2.2 Tactics 2.3 Unconventional methods 2.4 Growth during the 20th century3 History 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare4.1 Scholarship4.1.1 Classic guidelines 4.1.2 Variants5 Foco
Foco
theory 6 Relationship to terrorism 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra" ("war")
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Café Wars
The Café
Café
Wars took place during the Algerian War, as a part of the internal fighting in France
France
between two rival Algerian nationalist movements, the Mouvement National Algérien and the Front de Libération National (which later became the ruling political party in independent Algeria). The Café
Café
Wars are so called because part of the fighting took the form of bomb attacks and assassinations in cafés, directed at supporters of the other party, as they struggled for control and influence over the large Algerian expatriate community and its organizations. Since both organizations operated underground, and were wanted by the French government, the line between a military and a civilian target was hard to draw, and often wilfully disregarded by the combatants
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Expatriate
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.[1] In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, universities, governments, or non-governmental organisations.[2] Effectively migrant workers, they usually earn more than they would at home, and more than local employees. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country
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