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Merrill M. Flood
Merrill Meeks Flood (1908 – 1991) was an American mathematician, notable for developing, with Melvin Dresher, the basis of the game theoretical Prisoner's dilemma model of cooperation and conflict while being at RAND in 1950 (Albert W
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Operations Research
Operations research (British English: operational research) (OR) is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Further, the term operational analysis is used in the British (and some British Commonwealth) military as an intrinsic part of capability development, management and assurance
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University Of California
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which also include the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System. The University of California was founded on March 23rd, 1868, and operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began its reorganization, and in 1952 it became separated as a "university system" from the University of California, Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul being the first system-wide President and Clark Kerr being the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web, founded by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco. Its founders, Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat developed the Wayback Machine with the intention of providing "universal access to all knowledge" by preserving archived copies of defunct webpages. Since its launch in 2001, over 452 billion pages have been added to the archive
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Traveling Salesman Problem
The travelling salesman problem (TSP) asks the following question: "Given a list of cities and the distances between each pair of cities, what is the shortest possible route that visits each city and returns to the origin city?" It is an NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization, important in operations research and theoretical computer science. The travelling purchaser problem and the vehicle routing problem are both generalizations of TSP. In the theory of computational complexity, the decision version of the TSP (where, given a length L, the task is to decide whether the graph has any tour shorter than L) belongs to the class of NP-complete problems. Thus, it is possible that the worst-case running time for any algorithm for the TSP increases superpolynomially (but no more than exponentially) with the number of cities. The problem was first formulated in 1930 and is one of the most intensively studied problems in optimization
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Systems Analysis
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as "the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way". Another view sees system analysis as a problem-solving technique that breaks down a system into its component pieces for the purpose of the studying how well those component parts work and interact to accomplish their purpose. The field of system analysis relates closely to requirements analysis or to operations research. It is also "an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help a decision maker identify a better course of action and make a better decision than she might otherwise have made." The terms analysis and synthesis stem from Greek, meaning "to take apart" and "to put together," respectively
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Management Science
Management science (MS) is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other fields. It uses various scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods including mathematical modeling, statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and accurate management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. Management science helps businesses to achieve goals using various scientific methods. The field was initially an outgrowth of applied mathematics, where early challenges were problems relating to the optimization of systems which could be modeled linearly, i.e., determining the optima (maximum value of profit, assembly line performance, crop yield, bandwidth, etc
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Institute Of Industrial Engineers
Institute of Industrial Engineers(1981-2016) American Institute of Industrial Engineers (1948-1981)
The Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE), formerly the Institute of Industrial Engineers, is a professional society dedicated solely to the support of the industrial engineering profession and individuals involved with improving quality and productivity. The institute was founded in 1948 as the American Institute of Industrial Engineers. In 1981, the name was changed to Institute of Industrial Engineers reflect its international membership base., The name was changed again to the present Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers in 2016, to reflect the changing scope of the profession that has come to include engineers working with large-scale, integrated systems. Members include both college students and professionals. IISE holds annual regional and national conferences in the United States
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Society For General Systems Research
The International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) is a worldwide organization for systems sciences. The overall purpose of the ISSS is:
"to promote the development of conceptual frameworks based on general system theory, as well as their implementation in practice
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University Of Michigan
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The University of Michigan is the state's oldest university, founded in 1817 in Detroit, Michigan as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan Territory became a state. It moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (780 acres; 3.2 km2--->) spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, and a Center in Detroit
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Columbia University
Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States
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Rand Corporation
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces. It is financed by the U.S. government and private endowment, corporations, universities and private individuals. The company has grown to assist other governments, international organizations, private companies and foundations, with a host of defense and non-defense issues, including healthcare
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Joseph Wedderburn
Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn
FRSE FRS (2 February 1882, Forfar, Angus, Scotland – 9 October 1948, Princeton, New Jersey) was a Scottish mathematician, who taught at Princeton University for most of his career. A significant algebraist, he proved that a finite division algebra is a field, and part of the Artin–Wedderburn theorem on simple algebras
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Princeton University
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, where it was renamed Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance
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