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Merriam-Webster
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries. In 1828, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary
Dictionary
of the English Language from Webster's estate. All Merriam–Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source. In 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
acquired Merriam–Webster, Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982.[1][2]Contents1 Origins1.1 Noah Webster 1.2 Merriam as publisher2 Services 3 Pronunciation guides 4 Writing entries 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOrigins[edit] Noah Webster[edit] In 1806, Webster published his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary
Dictionary
of the English Language
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Parent Company
A parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operation by doing and influencing or electing its board of directors
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Phonetic Transcription
Phonetic transcription
Phonetic transcription
(also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones). The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.Contents1 Versus orthography 2 Narrow versus broad transcription 3 Types of notational systems3.1 Alphabetic3.1.1 Aspects of alphabetic transcription3.2 Iconic 3.3 Analphabetic4 Bibliography 5 See also5.1 Notational systems6 References 7 External linksVersus orthography[edit] The pronunciation of words in many languages, as distinct from their written form (orthography), has undergone significant change over time. Pronunciation
Pronunciation
can also vary greatly among dialects of a language. Standard orthography in some languages, particularly French, English, and Irish, is often irregular, and makes it difficult to predict pronunciation from spelling
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Thesaurus
In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order. The main purpose of such reference works for users "to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly and aptly expressed" – to quote Peter Mark Roget, architect of the best known thesaurus in the English language.[1] Although including synonyms, a thesaurus should not be taken as a complete list of all the synonyms for a particular word. The entries are also designed for drawing distinctions between similar words and assisting in choosing exactly the right word. Unlike a dictionary, a thesaurus entry does not give the definition of words. In library science and information science, thesauri have been widely used to specify domain models
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Geography
Geography
Geography
(from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description"[1]) is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.[2] The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).[3] Geography
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Biography
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae (résumé), a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs
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Medical Terminology
Medical terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon it. Medical terminology is used in the field of medicine. Notable aspects of medical terminology include the use of Greek and Latin
Latin
terms and regular morphology, with the same suffixes and prefixes used quite consistently for a particular meaning. This regular morphology means that once a reasonable number of morphemes are learned it becomes easy to understand very precise terms assembled from these morphemes. A lot of medical language is anatomical terminology, concerning itself with the names of various parts of the body.Contents1 Discussion 2 Medical terminology 3 Morphology 4 See also 5 External linksDiscussion[edit] In forming or understanding a word root, one needs a basic comprehension of the terms and the source language
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Slang
Slang refers to words, phrases and uses that are regarded as very informal and often restricted to special context or peculiar to a specified profession class and the like. Slang words are used in specific social groups, like teenagers, which they use oftentimes in their conversations.Contents1 Etymology of the word slang 2 Defining slang2.1 Examples of slang (cross-linguistic)3 Formation of slang 4 Social implications4.1 Indexicality4.1.1 First and second order indexicality 4.1.2 Higher-order indexicality4.2 Subculture associations 4.3 Social media and Internet slang 4.4 Debates about slang5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology of the word slang[edit] In its earliest attested use (1756), the word slang referred to the vocabulary of "low or disreputable" people, commonly phrased as the use of shortened language
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Text Message
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices. Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet
Internet
connection. The term originally referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service (SMS). It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages (known as MMS) containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji (happy faces, sad faces, and other icons). As of 2017, text messages are used by youth and adults for personal, family and social purposes and in business. Governmental and non-governmental organizations use text messaging for communication between colleagues
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Wiki
A wiki (/ˈwɪki/ ( listen) WIK-ee) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor.[1] A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little implicit structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users.[2] There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Linguistic Prescriptivism
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.[1][2] These rules may address such linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism,[3] such normative practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, improper, illogical, lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value.[4] They may also include judgments on socially proper and politically correct language use. Linguistic prescriptivism may aim to establish a standard language, teach what a particular society perceives as a correct form, or advise on effective communication
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International Phonetic Association
The International Phonetic Association
International Phonetic Association
(IPA; in French, Association phonétique internationale, API) is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science. The IPA’s major contribution to phonetics is the International Phonetic Alphabet—a notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages. The acronym IPA is used to refer to both the association and the alphabet. It was incorporated as a UK private company limited by guarantee on 30 June 2015.[1][2] The IPA also publishes the Journal of the International Phonetic Association
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ ( listen) ASS-kee),[1]:6 abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
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Index Card
An index card (or system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data. A collection of such cards either serves as, or aids the creation of, an index for expedited lookup of information (such as a library catalog or a back-of-the-book index). This system was invented by Carl Linnaeus,[1] around 1760.[2][3] The most common size for index cards in North America
North America
and UK is 3 by 5 inches (76.2 by 127.0 mm), hence the common name 3-by-5 card. Other sizes widely available include 4 by 6 inches (101.6 by 152.4 mm), 5 by 8 inches (127.0 by 203.2 mm) and ISO-size A7 (74 by 105 mm or 2.9 by 4.1 in). Cards are available in blank, ruled and grid styles in a variety of colors
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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