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Mentuhotep IV
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV was the last king of the 11th Dynasty. He seems to fit into a 7-year period in the Turin Canon
Turin Canon
for which there is no recorded king.Contents1 Rock inscriptions 2 End of reign 3 References 4 Further readingRock inscriptions[edit] He is known from a few inscriptions in Wadi Hammamat
Wadi Hammamat
that record expeditions to the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast and to quarry stone for the royal monuments. It seems that he was a son of his predecessor. Also, he is attested by the inscriptions at Wadi el-Hudi.[4] Another relevant inscription is found in Ain Sukhna.[5] These locations were the usual staging harbours for the expeditions to the Sinai. Despite Mentuhotep's obscurity (he is absent from the official king lists in Abydos), the inscriptions show the organization and makeup of a large expedition during his reign
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Min (god)
Min (Egyptian mnw[1]) is an ancient Egyptian god whose cult originated in the predynastic period (4th millennium BCE).[2] He was represented in many different forms, but was most often represented in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail. As Khem or Min, he was the god of reproduction; as Khnum, he was the creator of all things, "the maker of gods and men".[3]Contents1 Myths and function 2 Appearance 3 Family 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksMyths and function[edit] Min's cult began and was centered around Coptos
Coptos
(Koptos) and Akhmim (Panopolis) of upper Egypt,[4] where in his honour great festivals were held celebrating his “coming forth” with a public procession and presentation of offerings.[2] His other associations include the eastern desert and links to the god Horus
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Red Sea
The Red Sea
Red Sea
(also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb
Bab el Mandeb
strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
(leading to the Suez
Suez
Canal). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2),[1][2] is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Mummification
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 AD (See the section Etymology and meaning). Mummies of humans and other animals have been found on every continent,[1] both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, and as cultural artifacts
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First Intermediate Period Of Egypt
The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred and twenty-five years, from c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom.[1] It comprises the seventh (although it is mostly considered spurious by Egyptologists), eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially towards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum
Faiyum
region
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Lisht
Lisht
Lisht
or el- Lisht
Lisht
is an Egyptian village located south of Cairo. It is the site of Middle Kingdom royal and elite burials, including two pyramids built by Amenemhat I
Amenemhat I
and Senusret I. The two main pyramids were surrounded by smaller pyramids of members of the royal family, and many mastaba tombs of high officials and their family members. They were constructed throughout the Twelfth and Thirteenth Dynasties. The site is also known for the tomb of Senebtisi, found undisturbed and from which a set of jewelry has been recovered. The pyramid complex of Senusret I
Senusret I
is the best preserved from this period
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Slate
biotite, chlorite, hematite, pyrite Specific gravity: 2.7 – 2.8A piece of slate (~ 6 cm long and ~ 4 cm high) Slate
Slate
is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism
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Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
Egypt
(Arabic: مصر السفلى‎ Miṣr as-Suflā) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile
Nile
Delta, between Upper Egypt
Egypt
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
— from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt 4 List of nomes 5 See also 6 ReferencesGeography[edit] In ancient times, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile
Nile
split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic
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Abydos, Egypt
Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس‎; /əˈbaɪdɒs/ Sahidic Coptic: Ⲉⲃⲱⲧ Ebōt) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city. It is located about 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju (ꜣbḏw or AbDw)
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Ain Sukhna
Ain Sokhna
Ain Sokhna
(Arabic: العين السخنة‎ El ʿĒn El Sokhna Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [elˈʕeːn esˈsoxnæ], "the Hot Spring") is a town in the Suez
Suez
Governorate, lying on the western shore of the Red Sea's Gulf of Suez. It is situated 55 km south of Suez and approximately 120 km east of Cairo. History[edit] Recent archaeological excavations have shown that there was an ancient Egyptian port and settlement in this area. The site was first brought to attention in 1999 by Professor Mahmud Abd El Raziq.[1] French and Egyptian archaeologists have been investigating this area since that time. As early as the Old Kingdom, seafaring expeditions on the Red Sea
Red Sea
were organized from this port
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Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
Egypt
is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the end of the Naqada III
Naqada III
archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom.[1] With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis
Thinis
to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art, architecture and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Before the unification of Egypt, the land was settled with autonomous villages. With the early dynasties, and for much of Egypt's history thereafter, the country came to be known as the Two Lands
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Wadi Hammamat
Wadi
Wadi
Hammamat (English: Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypt's Eastern Desert, about halfway between Al-Qusayr and Qena
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Naqada III
Naqada
Naqada
III is the last phase of the Naqada
Naqada
culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC.[1] It is the period during which the process of state formation, which had begun to take place in Naqada
Naqada
II, became highly visible, with named kings heading powerful polities. Naqada
Naqada
III is often referred to as Dynasty 0 or the Protodynastic Period[1] to reflect the presence of kings at the head of influential states, although, in fact, the kings involved would not have been a part of a dynasty. They would more probably have been completely unrelated and very possibly in competition with each other
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Turin Canon
The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum)[1] in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.1904 version of attempt to assemble parts of the Turin King listContents1 Creation and use 2 Discovery and reconstruction 3 Contents of the papyrus 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksCreation and use[edit] The papyrus is believed to date from the reign of Ramesses II, during the middle of the New Kingdom, or the 19th Dynasty. The beginning and ending of the list are now lost; there is no introduction, and the list does not continue after the 19th Dynasty
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First Dynasty Of Egypt
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I)[1] covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, a time at which power was centered at Thinis. The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology. It falls within the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC
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