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Memorial
A MEMORIAL is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person (who has died) or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures , statues or fountains , and even entire parks . CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Examples of notable memorials * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPESThe most common type of memorial is the gravestone or the memorial plaque . Also common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars . Memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses . Online memorials and tributes are becoming increasingly popular especially with the increase in natural burial where the laying of gravestones, or memorial plaques, is often not permitted. When somebody has died, the family may request that a memorial gift (usually money ) be given to a designated charity , or that a tree be planted in memory of the person
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Smoleńsk
SMOLENSK (Russian : Смоленск, IPA: ( listen ), Lithuanian : Smolenskas) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk
Smolensk
Oblast , Russia
Russia
, located on the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
, 360 kilometers (220 mi) west-southwest of Moscow
Moscow
. Population: 326,861 (2010 Census ); 325,137 (2002 Census ); 341,483 (1989 Census ). The walled city in the center of Smolensk
Smolensk
(along with the outskirts) was destroyed several times throughout its long history because it was on the invasion routes of both Napoleon
Napoleon
and Hitler . Today, Smolensk is noted for electronics, textiles, food processing, and diamond faceting
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Namantar Shahid Smarak
SHAHID and SHAHEED (Arabic : شهيد‎ šahīd, plural: شُهَدَاء šuhadāʾ ; female: šahīda) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr . It is used as a honorific for Muslims who have died fulfilling a religious commandment, especially those who die waging jihad , or historically in the military expansion of Islam
Islam
. The act of martyrdom is istishhad . The word shahid in Arabic means "witness". Its development closely parallels that of Greek martys (Greek : μάρτυς - "witness", in the New Testament
New Testament
also "martyr"), the origin of the term martyr . Shahid occurs frequently in the Quran
Quran
in the generic sense "witness", but only once in the sense "martyr; one who dies deliberately for his faith"; this latter sense acquires wider use in the hadiths
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Scholarship
A SCHOLARSHIP is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education . Scholarships are awarded based upon various criteria, which usually reflect the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award. Scholarship money is not required to be repaid. CONTENTS * 1 Scholarships vs. grants * 2 Types * 3 Local * 4 Controversy * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Further reading SCHOLARSHIPS VS. GRANTSWhile the terms are frequently used interchangeably, there is a difference. Scholarships may have a financial need component but rely on other criteria as well
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War
WAR is a state of armed conflict between states or societies . It is generally characterized by extreme aggression , destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces . An absence of war is usually called "peace ". WARFARE refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war
Total war
is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets , and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties . While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature , others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War II
World War II
, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests at up to 60 million
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Charitable Organization
A CHARITABLE ORGANIZATION is a type of non-profit organization (NPO). It differs from other types of NPOs in that it centers on philanthropic goals as well as social well-being (e.g. charitable , educational , religious , or other activities serving the public interest or common good ). The legal definition of a charitable organization (and of charity) varies according to the country and in some instances the region of the country in which the charitable organization operates. The regulation, the tax treatment, and the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations also vary. Financial figures (e.g. tax refund, revenue from fundraising, revenue from sale of goods and services or revenue from investment) are important indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity, especially to charity evaluators . This information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, and thus the charity's financial gains
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Polish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego " (English: "
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Ghost Bike
A GHOST BIKE (also referred to as a GHOSTCYCLE or WHITECYCLE) is a bicycle roadside memorial , placed where a cyclist has been killed or severely injured, usually by a motor vehicle . Apart from being a memorial, it is usually intended as a reminder to passing motorists to share the road. Ghost bikes are usually junk bicycles painted white, sometimes with a placard attached, and locked to a suitable object close to the scene of the accident. They are also sometimes stripped of their tires, to deter theft. HISTORY Ghost bike in Berlin
Berlin
, 2009: a fully functional bicycle painted white is now a common form of roadside memorial Ghost bike or "Bicianimita" in Chile
Chile
, with a traditional small house for the soul of a road accident victim According to The Guardian
The Guardian
, the first recorded ghost bike was in St. Louis, Missouri , in 2003
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South Bound Brook
BOUND or BOUNDS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Mathematics * 2 Geography * 3 Arts, entertainment, and media * 3.1 Films * 3.2 Television * 3.3 Other arts, entertainment, and media * 4 Other uses * 5 See also MATHEMATICS * Bound variable * Upper and lower bounds , observed limits of mathematical functionsGEOGRAPHY * Bound Brook (Raritan River) , a tributary of the Raritan River in New Jersey *
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Park
A PARK is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of grassy areas, rocks , soil and trees , but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments , fountains or playground structures. In North America, many parks have fields for playing sports such as association football , baseball and football , and paved areas for games such as basketball . Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Often, the smallest parks are in urban areas, where a park may take up only a city block or less. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills
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German Waldheim Cemetery
FOREST HOME CEMETERY, incorporating the GERMAN WALDHEIM CEMETERY, is located at 863 S. DesPlaines Ave, Forest Park, Illinois , adjacent to the Eisenhower Expressway . Straddling the Des Plaines River , the cemetery is in Cook County , just west of Chicago . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Haymarket memorial * 3 Other notable interments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYForest Home Cemetery was the site of a Potawatomi village and "burial ground until 1835". Ferdinand Haase, "founder of Forest Park ", and other "members of the Haase family" are buried on what at one time also was a Haase family homestead . The cemetery was formally established "and incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois in 1876". The German Waldheim Cemetery was "organized by a group of German Masonic Lodges in 1873" with the "first interment" on May 9, 1873
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St. Roch's Church In Białystok
ST. ROCH ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH in Białystok
Białystok
, Poland
Poland
was built between 1927-1946 in a modernistic style, designed by renowned Polish architect, professor Oskar Sosnowski . Its official name is CHURCH - MONUMENT OF POLAND’S REGAINED INDEPENDENCE (KOSCIOL-POMNIK ODZYSKANIA NIEPODLEGLOSCI) and it stands on the Saint Roch
Roch
hill on Lipowa Street in Bialystok, in the spot where a Roman Catholic cemetery , founded in 1839, once stood. The cemetery was profaned by the Russians during the January Uprising
January Uprising
. The church was built on initiative of local provost , reverend Adam Abramowicz, who in April 1926 announced competition for the design of a new complex. Seventy entries were sent, with the design of professor Sosnowski winning. The church is planned as an octahedron, with three masses set on one another
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Mary Carpenter
MARY CARPENTER (3 April 1807 – 14 June 1877) was an English educational and social reformer . The daughter of a Unitarian minister , she founded a ragged school and reformatories , bringing previously unavailable educational opportunities to poor children and young offenders in Bristol
Bristol
. She published articles and books on her work and her lobbying was instrumental in the passage of several educational acts in the mid-nineteenth century. She was the first woman to have a paper published by the Statistical Society of London
Statistical Society of London
. She addressed many conferences and meetings and became known as one of the foremost public speakers of her time. Carpenter was active in the anti-slavery movement ; she also visited India, visiting schools and prisons and working to improve female education , establish reformatory schools and improve prison conditions
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2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 Crash
On 10 April 2010, a Tupolev Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
aircraft of the Polish Air Force crashed near the city of Smolensk
Smolensk
, Russia, killing all 96 people on board. Among the victims were the President of Poland
Poland
Lech Kaczyński and his wife Maria , the former President of Poland
Poland
in exile Ryszard Kaczorowski , the chief of the Polish General Staff
Polish General Staff
and other senior Polish military officers, the president of the National Bank of Poland , Polish Government officials, 18 members of the Polish Parliament , senior members of the Polish clergy and relatives of victims of the Katyn massacre
Katyn massacre
. The group was arriving from Warsaw
Warsaw
to attend an event marking the 70th anniversary of the massacre, which took place not far from Smolensk
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Maker's Mark
MAKER\'S MARK is a small-batch bourbon whiskey produced in Loretto, Kentucky , by Beam Suntory . It is bottled at 90 U.S. proof (45% alcohol by volume ) and sold in distinctively squarish bottles sealed with red wax. The distillery offers tours, and is part of the American Whiskey Trail and the Kentucky Bourbon Trail . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 About the bourbon * 3 Bourbon House & Lounge * 4 Reviews * 5 Limited edition collector\'s sets * 5.1 Keeneland * 5.2 University of Louisville * 5.3 University of Kentucky * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYMaker's Mark's origin began when T. William "Bill" Samuels Sr., purchased the "Burks' Distillery" in Loretto, Kentucky, for $35,000 on October 1, 1953. Production began in 1954, and the first run was bottled in 1958 under the brand's distinctive dipped red wax seal (U.S. trademark serial number 73526578)
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Forest Park, Illinois
FOREST PARK (formerly HARLEM) is a village in Cook County , Illinois , a suburb of Chicago
Chicago
, United States
United States
. The population was 14,167 at the 2010 census. The Forest Park terminal on the CTA Blue Line is the line's western terminus, located on the Eisenhower Expressway
Eisenhower Expressway
at Des Plaines Avenue. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Amusement park * 2.2 Circle Theatre * 3 Demographics
Demographics
* 4 Government * 5 Village life * 6 Education * 6.1 Public libraries * 7 Landmarks * 8 Notable people * 9 Gallery * 9.1 Forest Park Amusement Park * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links GEOGRAPHYForest Park is located at 41°52′23″N 87°48′40″W / 41.87306°N 87.81111°W / 41.87306; -87.81111 (41.873031, -87.811155)
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