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Melanesia
Melanesia
Melanesia
(UK: /ˌmɛləˈniːziə/; US: /ˌmɛləˈniːʒə/) is a subregion of Oceania
Oceania
extending from New Guinea
New Guinea
island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji. The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea
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Southern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17
Apollo 17
(Blue Marble) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspectiveThe Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted)The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South PoleThe Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the Equator
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Placename Etymology
In much of the "Old World" (approximately Africa, Asia
Asia
and Europe) the names of many places cannot easily be interpreted or understood;[citation needed] they do not convey any apparent meaning in the modern language of the area. This is due to a general set of processes through which place names evolve over time, until their obvious meaning is lost. In contrast, in the "New World" (roughly North America, South America, and Australasia), many place names' origins are known. Although the origin of many place names is now forgotten, it is often possible to establish likely meanings through consideration of early forms of the name. Some general conclusions about the nature of place names, and the way in which place names change, can be made and are examined below
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Ethnic
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Geopolitics
Geopolitics
Geopolitics
(from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.[1] While geopolitics usually refers to countries and relations between them, it may also focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent states with limited international recognition and; relations between sub-national geopolitical entities, such as the federated states that make up a federation, confederation or a quasi-federal system. At the level of international relations, geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables
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Genetic Study
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.[1][2] It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes. Gene structure and function, variation, and distribution are studied within the context of the cell, the organism (e.g
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Temple University
Temple University
Temple University
(Temple or TU) is a public research university located in the Cecil B. Moore neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. It was founded in 1884 by Baptist Minister Russell Conwell. In 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students, later dubbed "night owls", were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot
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Charles De Brosses
Charles de Brosses
Charles de Brosses
(French: [də bʁɔs]), comte de Tournay, baron de Montfalcon, seigneur de Vezins et de Prevessin (7 February 1709 – 7 May 1777), was a French writer of the 18th century.Contents1 Life 2 Publications 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He was president of the parliament of his hometown Dijon
Dijon
from 1741, a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
from 1746, and a member of the Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Dijon
Dijon
from 1761. He was a close friend of Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon, the naturalist who wrote the Histoire Naturelle, and a personal enemy of Voltaire, the famous philosopher, who barred his entry in the Académie française in 1770. Because he opposed the absolute power of the king, he was exiled twice, in 1744 and 1771
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Jean Baptiste Bory De Saint-Vincent
Saint Vincent may refer to:Contents1 Saints 2 Places2.1 Canada 2.2 France 2.3 United States3 Colleges 4 Entertainment 5 Health care 6 Ships 7 Other uses 8 See alsoSaints[edit]Saint Vincent the Deacon (d. 304), a.k.a. Vincent of Saragossa, deacon and martyr Saint Vincenca, 3rd century Roman martyress, whose relics are in Blato, Croatia Vincent, Orontius, and Victor (died 305), martyrs who evangelized in the Pyrenees Saint Vincent of Digne (died 379), French bishop of Digne Vincent of Lérins (d
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Language Families
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Pidgins
A pidgin[1][2][3] /ˈpɪdʒɪn/, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language.[4][5] A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia
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Arafura Sea
The Arafura Sea
Sea
lies west of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
overlying the continental shelf between Australia
Australia
and Indonesian New Guinea.Contents1 Geography1.1 Extent2 Name 3 Fisheries 4 See also 5 ReferencesGeography[edit] The Arafura Sea
Sea
is bordered by Torres Strait
Torres Strait
and through that the Coral Sea
Sea
to the east, the Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
to the south, the Timor Sea
Sea
to the west and the Banda and Ceram seas to the northwest. It is 1,290 kilometres (800 mi) long and 560 kilometres (350 mi) wide. The depth of the sea is primarily 50–80 metres (165–265 feet) with the depth increasing to the west. The sea lies over the Arafura Shelf, part of the Sahul Shelf
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Creole Language
A creole language,[1][2][3] or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, in the strict sense of the term, a mixed/hybrid language has derived from two or more languages, to such an extent that it is no longer closely related to the source languages. Creoles also differ from pidgins in that, while a pidgin has a highly simplified linguistic structure that develops as a means of establishing communication between two or more disparate language groups, a creole language is more complex, used for day-to-day purposes in a community, and acquired by children as a native language
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Hiri Motu
Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is an official language of Papua New Guinea.[3] It is a simplified version of Motu, of the Austronesian language family. Although it is strictly neither a pidgin nor a creole, it possesses some features of both language types. Phonological and grammatical differences mean that Hiri Motu speakers cannot understand Motu. Similarly, Motu speakers who do not also learn Hiri Motu have similar difficulties, though the languages are lexically very similar, and retain a common, albeit simplified, Austronesian syntactical basis. Even in the areas where it was once well established as a lingua franca, the use of Hiri Motu has been declining in favour of Tok Pisin and English for many years.Contents1 Dialects 2 History 3 Sounds 4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 Bibliography5 External linksDialects[edit] Hiri Motu has two dialects, called "Austronesian" and "Papuan"
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Monograph
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works)[1] on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, usually by a single author. In library cataloging, monograph has a broader meaning, that of a nonserial publication complete in one volume (book) or a finite number of volumes. Thus it differs from a serial publication such as a magazine, journal, or newspaper.[2] In this context only, books such as novels are monographs.Contents1 In academia 2 In art 3 In biology 4 In United States Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
regulation 5 See also 6 ReferencesIn academia[edit] See also: Monographic series The term "monographia" is derived from the Greek "mono" (single) and grapho (to write), meaning "writing on a single subject". Unlike a textbook, which surveys the state of knowledge in a field, the main purpose of a monograph is to present primary research and original scholarship
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