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Meizhou Dialect
Meixian dialect (Chinese: 梅縣話; Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Mòi-yen-fa; IPA: mɔi jan fa), also known as Meizhou (梅州話), Moiyen, and Yue-Tai, is the prestige dialect of Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
and the basis for the Hakka dialects in Taiwan
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People's Republic Of China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Varieties Of Chinese
Chinese, also known as Sinitic,[a] is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, with variation particularly strong in the more rugged southeast. These varieties, often called "dialects", have been classified into seven to ten groups, the largest being Mandarin (e.g. Beijing dialect), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese), Min (e.g. Hokkien), and Yue (e.g. Cantonese). Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology, and to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax. Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
final consonants. All have phonemic tones, with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones
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Palatal Approximant
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is j, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨y⟩. Because the English name of the letter J, jay, does not start with [j] but with [d͡ʒ] (voiced palato-alveolar affricate), this approximant is sometimes called yod instead, as in the phonological history terms yod-dropping and yod-coalescence. The palatal approximant can in many cases be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close front unrounded vowel [i]. The two are almost identical featurally
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Checked Syllable
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
(formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Tone Name
In tonal languages, tone names are the names given to the tones these languages use.Pitch contours of the four Mandarin tonesIn contemporary standard Chinese (Mandarin), the tones are numbered from 1 to 4. They are descended from but not identical to the historical four tones of Middle Chinese, namely level (Chinese: 平; pinyin: píng), rising (Chinese: 上; pinyin: shǎng), departing (Chinese: 去; pinyin: qù), and entering (Chinese: 入; pinyin: rù), each split into yin (Chinese: 陰; pinyin: yīn) and yang (Chinese: 陽; pinyin: yáng) registers, and the categories of high and low syllables.Northern Vietnamese (non-Hanoi) tones as uttered by a male speaker in isolation
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Tone Letter
Tone letters are letters that represent the tones of a language, most commonly in languages with contour tones.Contents1 Chao tone letters (IPA)1.1 Modified Chao tone letters2 Numerical values 3 Division of tone space 4 IPA tone letters in Unicode 5 Non-IPA systems 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesChao tone letters (IPA)[edit]The tone contours of Mandarin Chinese. In the convention for Chinese, 1 is low and 5 is high. The corresponding tone letters are ˥ ˧˥ ˨˩˦ ˥˩.A series of iconic tone letters based on a musical staff was devised by Yuen Ren Chao
Yuen Ren Chao
and adopted into the International Phonetic Alphabet.[1] Previously the contour had been drawn without the staff, making the height of the tone difficult to read. Combinations of these tone letters are schematics of the pitch contour of a tone, mapping the pitch in the letter space and ending in a vertical bar
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Changting County
 Changting (help·info) (simplified Chinese: 长汀; traditional Chinese: 長汀; pinyin: Chángtīng; Hakka: Tshòng-tin), also known as Tingzhou or Tingchow (汀州), is a county in western Fujian province, People's Republic of China. With a population of 480,000 and an area of 3,099 square kilometres (1,197 sq mi), Changting is the fifth largest county in the province [1]. The majority of the population belongs to the Hakka people and speaks Changting dialect, a dialect of Hakka Chinese
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Guangyun
The Guangyun
Guangyun
(Kuang-yun; simplified Chinese: 广韵; traditional Chinese: 廣韻; pinyin: Guǎngyùn; Wade–Giles: Kuang3-yün4; literally: "Broad Rimes") is a Chinese rime dictionary that was compiled from 1007 to 1008 under the auspices of Emperor Zhenzong of Song. Chen Pengnian (陳彭年, 961–1017) and Qiu Yong (邱雍) were the chief editors. It is a revision and expansion of the influential Qieyun
Qieyun
rime dictionary of 601, and was itself later revised as the Jiyun. Until the discovery of an almost complete early 8th century edition of the Qieyun
Qieyun
in 1947, the Guangyun
Guangyun
was the most accurate available account of the Qieyun
Qieyun
phonology, and was heavily used in early work on the reconstruction of Middle Chinese
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Fanqie
In traditional Chinese lexicography, fǎnqiè or fan-chieh is a method to indicate the pronunciation of a monosyllabic character by using two other characters, one with the same initial consonant as the desired syllable and one with the same rest of the syllable (the final)
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Sandhi
Sandhi[note 1] (Sanskrit: संधि saṃdhí "joining") is a cover term for a wide variety of sound changes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. Examples include fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of one sound depending on nearby sounds or the grammatical function of the adjacent words
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Fricative Consonant
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German [x] (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ] (appearing twice in the name Llanelli). This turbulent airflow is called frication. A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ] are examples of sibilants. The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" can be a synonym of "fricative", or (as in e.g. Uralic linguistics) refer to non-sibilant fricatives only
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Northeastern Mandarin
Northeastern Mandarin
Northeastern Mandarin
(simplified Chinese: 东北话; traditional Chinese: 東北話; pinyin: Dōngběihuà; literally: "Northeast Speech" or 东北官话/東北官話 Dōngběiguānhuà "Northeast Mandarin") is the subgroup of Mandarin varieties spoken in Northeast China with the exception of the Liaodong Peninsula.Contents1 Geographical distribution 2 Phonology 3 Cultural and regional identity 4 ReferencesGeographical distribution[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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