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Mehmed The Conqueror
Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى‎, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern Turkish: II. Mehmet Turkish pronunciation: [ˈikind͡ʒi meh.met]; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Muhammad al- Fatih
Fatih
the Conqueror (Turkish: Fatih
Fatih
Sultan
Sultan
Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia
Anatolia
with its reunification and in Southeast Europe
Europe
as far west as Bosnia. Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey
Turkey
and parts of the wider Muslim world
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Bosphorus
The Bosporus
Bosporus
(/ˈbɒspərəs/) or Bosphorus (/ˈbɒspərəs/ or /ˈbɒsfərəs/);[1] Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos [ˈvos.po.ros], Ancient Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos [bós.po.ros]; Turkish: İstanbul Boğazı, [isˈtanbuɫ bo‿aˈzɯ]) is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey
Turkey
from European Turkey
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official),
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Ottoman Turkish Language
Ottoman Turkish (/ˈɒtəmən/; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet
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Tughra
A tughra (Ottoman Turkish: طغرا‎ tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Very elaborate decorated versions were created for important documents that were also works of art in the tradition of Ottoman illumination, such as the example of Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in the gallery below. The tughra was designed at the beginning of the sultan's reign and drawn by the court calligrapher or nişancı on written documents
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Sunni Islam
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri Sunni
Sunni
schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t eThis article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(/ˈsuːni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest denomination of Islam
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Devrekani
Devrekani
Devrekani
is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province
Kastamonu Province
in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 15,855 of which 6,174 live in the town of Devrekani.[3][4] The district covers an area of 599 km2 (231 sq mi),[5] and the town lies at an elevation of 1,116 m (3,661 ft). Notes[edit]^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.  ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.  ^ Turkish Statistical Institute. "Census 2000, Key statistics for urban areas of Turkey" (in Turkish). Archived from the original (XLS) on 2007-07-22. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  ^ GeoHive
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Kastamonu
Kastamonu
Kastamonu
is the capital district of the Kastamonu
Kastamonu
Province, Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 102,059 of which 64,606 live in the urban center of Kastamonu.[3][4] (Population of the urban center in 2010 is 91,012.[5]) The district covers an area of 1,834 km2 (708 sq mi),[6] and the town lies at an elevation of 904 m (2,966 ft). It is located to the south of the province.Contents1 History 2 Economic history 3 Education 4 Climate 5 Transport 6 Notable natives 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory[edit]Governor's historical office Kastamonu
Kastamonu
city center and Nasrullah Bridge.The city is believed to have been founded in the 18th century BC
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Amasya
Amasya
Amasya
(Greek: Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey
Turkey
and is the capital of Amasya
Amasya
Province, in the Black Sea
Black Sea
Region
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Karamanids
The Karamanids
Karamanids
or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman
Karaman
and Beylik of Karaman
Karaman
( Karaman
Karaman
Beyliği), was one of the Islamic
Islamic
Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia
Anatolia
around the present-day Karaman
Karaman
Province
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Muslim World
The terms Muslim
Muslim
world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam,[1] or to societies where Islam
Islam
is practiced.[2][3] In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam
Islam
is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion.[4][3] Some scholars and commentators have criticised the term 'Muslim/Islamic world' and its derivative terms 'Muslim/Islamic country' as "simplistic" and "binary", since no state has a religiously homogeneous population (e.g. Egypt's citizens are c
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Peace Of Szeged
The Treaty of Edirne
Edirne
and the Peace of Szeged
Szeged
were two halves of a peace treaty between Sultan
Sultan
Murad II
Murad II
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and King Vladislaus of the Kingdom of Hungary. Despot Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
of the Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
also had a large role in the proceedings. The ratification took place on August 15, 1444 in Várad, a few months before the end of the Crusade of Varna. The treaty was started in Edirne
Edirne
with discussions between Murad and Vladislaus' ambassador. Within a few days, it was sent to Szeged
Szeged
with Murad's ambassador, to be finalized and ratified by Vladislaus
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Julian Cesarini
Julian Cesarini
Julian Cesarini
the Elder (It.: Giuliano Cesarini, seniore) (1398 in Rome
Rome
– November 10, 1444 in Varna, Bulgaria) was one of the group of brilliant cardinals created by Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V
on the conclusion of the Western Schism. His intellect and diplomacy made him a powerful agent first of the Council of Basel
Council of Basel
and then, after he broke with the Conciliar movement at Basel, of Papal superiority against the Conciliar movement
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