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Medium Wave
MEDIUM WAVE (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting . For Europe
Europe
the M W band ranges from 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz, using channels spaced every 9 kHz, and in North America
North America
an extended MW broadcast band ranges from 525 kHz to 1705 kHz, using 10 kHz spaced channels
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Omnidirectional Antenna
In radio communication , an OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNA is a class of antenna which radiates radio wave power uniformly in all directions in one plane, with the radiated power decreasing with elevation angle above or below the plane, dropping to zero on the antenna's axis. This radiation pattern is often described as "doughnut shaped". Note that this is different from an isotropic antenna , which radiates equal power in all directions and has a "spherical" radiation pattern. Omnidirectional antennas oriented vertically are widely used for nondirectional antennas on the surface of the Earth because they radiate equally in all horizontal directions, while the power radiated drops off with elevation angle so little radio energy is aimed into the sky or down toward the earth and wasted
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Directional Antenna
A DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA or BEAM ANTENNA is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing for increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources. Directional antennas provide increased performance over dipole antennas – or omnidirectional antennas in general – when greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction is desired. A HIGH-GAIN ANTENNA (HGA) is a directional antenna with a focused, narrow radiowave beam width. This narrow beam width allows more precise targeting of the radio signals. Most commonly referred to during space missions , these antennas are also in use all over Earth , most successfully in flat, open areas where no mountains lie to disrupt radiowaves. By contrast, a LOW-GAIN ANTENNA (LGA) is an omnidirectional antenna with a broad radiowave beam width, that allows for the signal to propagate reasonably well even in mountainous regions and is thus more reliable regardless of terrain
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Kaliningrad
KALININGRAD (Russian : Калининград; IPA: ) (former German name: KöNIGSBERG ; Russian : Кёнигсберг, tr. Kyonigsberg; Old Prussian : Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish : Królewiec; Lithuanian : Karaliaučius) is the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
, a Russian semi-exclave between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, it was the site of Old Prussian settlement Twangste. In 1255, during the Northern Crusades , a new fortress was built by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
. The city became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
and East Prussia
East Prussia
(part of Germany
Germany
)
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International Telecommunication Union
The INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH UNION (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies . The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum , promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits , works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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Geneva Frequency Plan Of 1975
The GENEVA FREQUENCY PLAN OF 1975 (Aka "The Final Acts of the Regional Administrative LF/MF Broadcasting Conference (Regions 1 and 3) Geneva, 1975" or simply "GE75") is the internationally agreed frequency plan which was drawn up to implement the provisions of the Final Acts of the Regional Administrative LF/MF Broadcasting Conference (Regions 1 and 3) held in Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, in 1975. It covers radio broadcasting in the long and medium wave bands outside the Americas (separate agreements being in place for North and South America). The plan was drawn up under the auspices of the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU) with the assistance of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU/UER). The Geneva
Geneva
plan replaced the 1948 Copenhagen plan
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Mast Radiator
A MAST RADIATOR (or RADIATING TOWER) is a radio mast or tower in which the entire structure functions as an antenna . This design, developed around 1930, is commonly used for transmitting antennas operating at low frequencies , in the VLF , LF and MF ranges, in particular those used for AM broadcasting . The metal mast is electrically connected to the transmitter . Its base is usually mounted on a nonconductive support to insulate it from the ground. A mast radiator is a form of monopole antenna . CONTENTS* 1 Design considerations * 1.1 Design * 1.2 Mast height * 1.3 Feed arrangements * 1.4 Location on transmission facility * 1.5 Fencing * 1.6 Ancillary connections * 1.7 Anti-fading antennas * 1.8 Records * 2 See also DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSDESIGN To ensure that the mast acts as a single conductor, the separate structural sections of the mast are connected electrically by copper jumpers or "fusion" (arc) welds across the mating flanges
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Industry Canada
Department responsible for * CRTC * Copyright Board of Canada * Canadian Intellectual Property Office * Regional Economic Development Agencies JURISDICTION Canada EMPLOYEES 6,104 (2006) ANNUAL BUDGET CAD$ 4.9 billion (2015) MINISTERS RESPONSIBLE * Navdeep Bains * Kirsty Duncan * Bardish Chagger DEPUTY MINISTER RESPONSIBLE * John Knubley WEBSITE www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development.htmlINNOVATION, SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CANADA (French : Innovation, Sciences et Développement économique Canada), or ISED, formerly INDUSTRY CANADA, is the department of the Government of Canada with a mandate of fostering a growing, competitive, knowledge-based Canadian economy. The Department headquarters are located at the C.D. Howe Building at 235 Queen Street in Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario
Ontario

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CJDL-FM
CJDL-FM is an FM radio
FM radio
station licensed to Tillsonburg , Ontario
Ontario
, Canada, which broadcasts at 107.3 FM. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Migration aspirations * 1.1.1 Moving to the FM band * 1.2 CKOT (AM) shutdown 2013 * 1.3 Acquisition by Rogers * 2 References * 3 External links HISTORYThe station was originally licensed on April 26, 1955, and began broadcasts four days later at 1510 kHz on AM . The station was owned by John B. Lamers, Sr., Ken Orton, and four other shareholders under the name of Tillsonburg Broadcasting Company, Limited. The transmitter and two 160-foot (49 m) high towers were located in Lot 16, Concession 2, of Middleton Township in Norfolk County . The station was a daytimer (operating only during the day) for much of its existence and was also the last remaining Canadian daytime-only station still in operation until it shut down its AM side in 2013
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Exclave
An ENCLAVE is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, and enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. :60 An EXCLAVE is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory (of one or more states). Many exclaves are also enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino , enclaved by Italy , and Lesotho , enclaved by South Africa , are the only completely enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states. The Azeri exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Ibiquity
IBIQUITY DIGITAL CORPORATION is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States and around the world. Based in Columbia, Maryland
Columbia, Maryland
, with additional offices in Basking Ridge, New Jersey
Basking Ridge, New Jersey
, and Auburn Hills, Michigan
Auburn Hills, Michigan
, iBiquity is a privately held, intellectual properties company, whose investors include global leaders in the technology, broadcasting, manufacturing, media and financial industries. IBOC can operate on both AM band
AM band
and FM band broadcasts either in a digital-only mode, or in a "hybrid" digital+analog mode
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In-band On-channel
IN-BAND ON-CHANNEL (IBOC) is a hybrid method of transmitting digital radio and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency . By utilizing additional digital subcarriers or sidebands , digital information is "multiplexed " on an AM or FM analog signal, thus avoiding re-allocation of the broadcast bands. However, by putting RF energy outside of the normally-defined channel , interference to adjacent channel stations is increased when using digital sidebands. IBOC does allow for multiple program channels, though this can entail taking some existing subcarriers off the air to make additional bandwidth available in the modulation baseband . On FM, this could eventually mean removing stereo . On AM, IBOC is incompatible with analog stereo, and any additional channels are limited to highly compressed voice, such as traffic and weather
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HD Radio
HD RADIO is a trademarked term for iBiquity 's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal , providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality). The HD format also provides the means for a single radio station to simultaneously broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel. It was selected by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, and is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States. It is officially known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-C
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