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Medieval Hebrew
Medieval Hebrew
Medieval Hebrew
was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 18th century. It was not commonly used as a spoken language, but mainly in written form by rabbis, scholars and poets. Medieval Hebrew
Medieval Hebrew
had many features that distinguished it from older forms of Hebrew. These affected grammar, syntax, sentence structure, and also included a wide variety of new lexical items, which were either based on older forms or borrowed from other languages, especially Aramaic, Greek and Latin.[1] In the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, important work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians of Classical Arabic. Important Hebrew grammarians were Judah ben David Hayyuj and Jonah ibn Janah
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The Guide For The Perplexed
The Guide for the Perplexed
The Guide for the Perplexed
(Hebrew: מורה נבוכים‬, Moreh Nevukhim; Arabic: دلالة الحائرين‎, dalālat al-ḥā’irīn, דלאל̈ת אלחאירין) is one of the three major works of Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon, primarily known either as Maimonides
Maimonides
or RAMBAM (Hebrew: רמב"ם‎. This work seeks to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy
Aristotelian philosophy
with Hebrew Bible theology, by finding rational explanations for many events in the text.It was written in Judeo-Arabic
Judeo-Arabic
in the form of a three part letter to his student, Rabbi
Rabbi
Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta, the son of Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah, and is the main source of the Rambam's philosophical views, as opposed to his opinions on Jewish law
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Mishneh Torah
The Mishneh Torah
Torah
(Hebrew: מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה‎, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה " Book
Book
of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides
Maimonides
( Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"). The Mishneh Torah
Torah
was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930–4940), while Maimonides
Maimonides
was living in Egypt, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus. Accordingly, later sources simply refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides
Maimonides
composed other works. Mishneh Torah
Torah
consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters, and paragraphs
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Spain In The Middle Ages
In many ways, the history of Spain
Spain
is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage of the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans
Alans
down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania
Hispania
from 408, the history of medieval Spain
Spain
begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arianist Visigoths (507–711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared
Reccared
in 587. Visigothic culture in Spain
Spain
can be seen as a phenomenon of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
as much as part of the Age of Migrations. From Northern Africa in 711, the Muslim Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty entered Europe and sparked a Muslim versus Christian war called the Reconquista, or the Reconquest (i.e.: The Christians "reconquering" their lands as a religious crusade)
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Classical Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Piyyut
A piyyut or piyut (plural piyyutim or piyutim, Hebrew: פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט‬ pronounced [piˈjut, pijuˈtim]; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic, and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam
Adon Olam
("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol
Solomon ibn Gabirol
in 11th century Spain
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Ibn Ezra (other)
Ibn Ezra was the name of a prominent Jewish family from Spain
Spain
spanning many centuries. The name ibn Ezra may refer to: Abraham ibn Ezra
Abraham ibn Ezra

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David Hakohen
David Hakohen (also haKohen or Ha-Kohen) was a late thirteenth-century Hebrew liturgical poet from Avignon, who wrote from a Jewish perspective in the troubadouresque tradition.[1][2] His most published work, "Silence and Praise" (Hishtaḥavi u-birkhi), is in the form of a muwashshah, a prelude to prayer. Ironically, the ode pledges that the prayer will be silent. It has been translated into English.[3] It opens like this:Bow down, my soul, and kneel before my rock of refuge; Praise the Lord and bless Him! My lips are too low to sing his high praises. My years are too few to recite his glorious works. All my days would not suffice to tell his mighty deeds.Notes[edit]^ W. D. Paden and F. F. Paden (2007), Troubadour
Troubadour
Poems from the South of France (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer), 231–32. ^ Andrew V
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Judah Ha-Levi
Judah Halevi
Judah Halevi
(also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; Hebrew: יהודה הלוי‬ and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi יהודה בן שמואל הלוי‬; Arabic: يهوذا اللاوي‎; c. 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher. He was born in Spain, either in Toledo or Tudela,[1] in 1075[2] or 1086, and died shortly after arriving in the Holy Land in 1141, at that point the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Halevi is considered one of the greatest Hebrew poets, celebrated both for his religious and secular poems, many of which appear in present-day liturgy
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Dunash Ben Labrat
Dunash ha-Levi ben Labrat (920-990) (Hebrew: דוֹנָש הלוי בֵּן לָבְרָט‬; Arabic: دناش بن لبراط‎) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. He was, according to Moses ibn Ezra, born in Fes.[1] the name Dunash being of Berber origin. In his youth he travelled to Baghdad
Baghdad
to study with Saadia Gaon.[2] Dunash is called the founder of Andalusian Hebrew poetry.[3] He first introduced Arabic meter into Hebrew poetry. Traditional Arabic poetry was built on interspersing long and short vowels. In contrast, Hebrew distinguishes between the quality of the vowels, rather than their length. Dunash's innovation came in drawing a parallel between the šəwâ (ə) and ḥāṭēp̄ (ĕ/ă/ŏ) and the Arabic short vowels (i/a/u), so as to create a new Hebrew meter. This meter formed the basis for all subsequent medieval Hebrew poetry
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Jonah Ibn Janah
Jonah ibn Janah
Jonah ibn Janah
or ibn Janach,[1] also known as Abu al-Walīd Marwān ibn Janāḥ (Arabic: أبو الوليد مروان بن جناح),[2] (c. 990 – c. 1055), was a Jewish rabbi, physician and Hebrew grammarian active in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
or Islamic Spain. Born in Córdoba, ibn Janah was mentored there by Isaac ibn Gikatilla and Isaac ibn Mar Saul, before he moved around 1012, due to the sacking of the city. He then settled in Zaragoza, where he wrote Kitab al-Mustalhaq, which expanded on the research of Judah ben David Hayyuj and led to a series of controversial exchanges with Samuel ibn Naghrillah that remained unresolved during their lifetimes. His magnum opus, Kitab al-Anqih, contained both the first complete grammar for Hebrew and a dictionary of Classical Hebrew, and is considered "the most influential Hebrew grammar for centuries"[3] and a foundational text in Hebrew scholarship
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Judah Ben David Hayyuj
Judah ben David Hayyuj (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن داؤد حيوج Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Dawūd Hayyūj) was a Moroccan Jewish linguist. He is regarded as the father of scientific grammar of Hebrew language. He was born in Fez, Morocco, about 945. At an early age he went to Cordoba, where he seems to have remained till his death, which occurred about 1000 CE.Contents1 Career 2 His works 3 Influence 4 Editions 5 Bibliography 6 ReferencesCareer[edit] Hayyuj was a pupil of Menahem ben Saruq, whom he later helped to defend against the attacks of Dunash ben Labrat and his followers. Later in life Hayyuj developed his own theories about Hebrew grammar, and was himself obliged to step forward as an opponent of the grammatical theories of his teacher
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Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content;[1] it is also used in modernized versions of the Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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Maimonides
30 March[1] or 6 April[2] 1135 Possibly born 28 March[3] or 4 April[4] 1138 Córdoba, Almoravid Empire
Almoravid Empire
(present-day Spain)Died 12 December 1204 (aged 69) Fostat, Ayyubid Sultanate
Ayyubid Sultanate
(present-day Eg
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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