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Medieval Hebrew
MEDIEVAL HEBREW was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 18th century. It was not commonly used as a spoken language, but mainly in written form by rabbis , scholars and poets. Medieval Hebrew had many features that distinguished it from older forms of Hebrew . These affected grammar, syntax, sentence structure, and also included a wide variety of new lexical items, which were either based on older forms or borrowed from other languages, especially Aramaic , Greek and Latin . In the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula , important work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of the grammarians of Classical Arabic . Important Hebrew grammarians were Judah ben David Hayyuj and Jonah ibn Janah
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Judah Ben David Hayyuj
JUDAH BEN DAVID HAYYUJ ( Arabic
Arabic
: أبو زكريا يحيى بن داؤد حيوج ABU ZAKARIYYA YAHYA IBN DAWūD HAYYūJ) was a Moroccan Jewish linguist . He is regarded as the father of scientific grammar of Hebrew language. He was born in Fez, Morocco
Fez, Morocco
, about 945. At an early age he went to Cordoba , where he seems to have remained till his death, which occurred about 1000 CE. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 His works * 3 Influence * 4 Editions * 5 Bibliography * 6 References CAREERHayyuj was a pupil of Menahem ben Saruq , whom he later helped to defend against the attacks of Dunash ben Labrat and his followers. Later in life Hayyuj developed his own theories about Hebrew grammar , and was himself obliged to step forward as an opponent of the grammatical theories of his teacher
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Dunash Ben Labrat
DUNASH HA-LEVI BEN LABRAT (920-990) (Hebrew : דוֹנָש הלוי בֵּן לָבְרָט‎‎; Arabic : دناش بن لبراط‎‎) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain
Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain
. He was, according to Moses ibn Ezra , born in Fes
Fes
. the name Dunash being of Berber origin. In his youth he travelled to Baghdad
Baghdad
to study with Saadia Gaon
Saadia Gaon
. Dunash is called the founder of Andalusian Hebrew poetry. He first introduced Arabic meter into Hebrew poetry. Traditional Arabic poetry was built on interspersing long and short vowels. In contrast, Hebrew distinguishes between the quality of the vowels, rather than their length
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Classical Arabic
CLASSICAL ARABIC is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi . Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content; it is also used in modernized versions of Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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Golden Age Of Jewish Culture In The Iberian Peninsula
CULTURE (/ˈkʌltʃər/ ) is the social behavior and norms found in human societies . Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology , encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies . Some aspects of human behavior, social practices such as culture, expressive forms such as art , music , dance , ritual , and religion , and technologies such as tool usage , cooking , shelter , and clothing are said to be cultural universals , found in all human societies. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions ), mythology , philosophy , literature (both written and oral ), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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The Guide For The Perplexed
THE GUIDE FOR THE PERPLEXED (Hebrew : מורה נבוכים, Moreh Nevukhim; Arabic : دلالة الحائرين, dalālat al-ḥā’irīn, דלאל̈ה אלחאירין) is one of the three major works of Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon , primarily known either as Maimonides
Maimonides
or RAMBAM (Hebrew : רמב"ם‎‎. This work seeks to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Old Testament theology, by finding rational explanations for many events in the text. It was written in Judeo-Arabic in the form of a three part letter to his student, Rabbi
Rabbi
Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta , the son of Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah, and is the main source of the Rambam's philosophical views, as opposed to his opinions on Jewish law
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Judah Ha-Levi
JUDAH HALEVI (also YEHUDA HALEVI or HA-LEVI; Hebrew : יהודה הלוי‎ and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi יהודה בן שמואל הלוי‎; Arabic : يهوذا اللاوي‎‎; c. 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher . He was born in Spain, either in Toledo or Tudela , in 1075 or 1086, and died shortly after arriving in the Holy Land in 1141, at that point the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem . Halevi is considered one of the greatest Hebrew poets, celebrated both for his religious and secular poems, many of which appear in present-day liturgy. His greatest philosophical work was The Kuzari
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Spain In The Middle Ages
In many ways, the history of Spain
Spain
is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage of the Vandals and Alans
Alans
down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania
Hispania
from 408, the history of MEDIEVAL SPAIN begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arianist Visigoths (507–711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. Visigothic culture in Spain
Spain
can be seen as a phenomenon of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
as much as part of the Age of Migrations . From Northern Africa in 711, the Muslim Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty entered Europe and sparked a Muslim versus Christian war called the Reconquista , or the Reconquest (i.e.: The Christians "reconquering" their lands as a religious crusade)
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Ibn Tibbon
IBN TIBBON (Hebrew : אבן תבון‎), is a family of Jewish rabbis and translators that lived principally in Provence in the 12th and 13th centuries. CONTENTS * 1 Prominent family members * 2 Others * 3 See also * 4 External links PROMINENT FAMILY MEMBERSProminent members of the family include: * Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon (1120–after 1190), translator and physician. Born in Granada , he left Spain in 1150, probably on account of anti-Semitic persecution by the Almohades , and went to Lunel in southern France . Benjamin of Tudela mentions him as a physician there in 1160. He died around 1190, in Marseille, France
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Classical Greek Language
CLASSICAL may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 European antiquity * 2 Music and arts * 3 Language * 4 Science and mathematics * 5 Other uses * 6 See also EUROPEAN ANTIQUITY * Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E
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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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David Hakohen
DAVID HAKOHEN (also HAKOHEN or HA-KOHEN) was a late thirteenth-century Hebrew liturgical poet from Avignon , who wrote from a Jewish perspective in the troubadouresque tradition. His most published work, "Silence and Praise" (Hishtaḥavi u-birkhi), is in the form of a muwashshah , a prelude to prayer. Ironically, the ode pledges that the prayer will be silent. It has been translated into English. It opens like this: Bow down, my soul, and kneel before my rock of refuge; Praise the Lord and bless Him! My lips are too low to sing his high praises. My years are too few to recite his glorious works. All my days would not suffice to tell his mighty deeds. NOTES * ^ W. D. Paden and F. F. Paden (2007), Troubadour Poems from the South of France (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer), 231–32. * ^ Andrew V. Ettin (1994), Speaking Silences: Stillness and Voice in Modern Thought and Jewish Tradition (University of Virginia Press), 37. * ^ The standard edition, in T. Carmi, ed
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Ibn Ezra (other)
EZRA (/ˈɛzrə/ ; Hebrew : עזרא‬, Ezra; fl. 480–440 BCE), also called EZRA THE SCRIBE (עזרא הסופר‬, Ezra ha-Sofer) and EZRA THE PRIEST in the Book of Ezra , was a Jewish scribe and a priest. In Greco -Latin Ezra is called Esdras (Greek : Ἔσδρας). According to the Hebrew Bible he was a descendant of Seraiah (Ezra 7:1) the last High Priest to serve in the First Temple (2 Kings 25:18), and a close relative of Joshua the first High Priest of the Second Temple (1 Chronicles 5:40-41 CJB and similar translations only; see also Ezra 3:2). He returned from Babylonian exile and reintroduced the Torah in Jerusalem (Ezra 7–10 and Neh 8). According to 1 Esdras , a Greek translation of the Book of Ezra still in use in Eastern Orthodoxy , he was also a High Priest. Rabbinic tradition holds that he was only a common priest. Several traditions have developed over his place of burial
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