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Medical Screening
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms. This can include individuals with pre-symptomatic or unrecognized symptomatic disease. As such, screening tests are somewhat unusual in that they are performed on persons apparently in good health. Screening interventions are designed to identify disease in a community early, thus enabling earlier intervention and management in the hope to reduce mortality and suffering from a disease. Although screening may lead to an earlier diagnosis, not all screening tests have been shown to benefit the person being screened; overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and creating a false sense of security are some potential adverse effects of screening. Additionally, some screening tests can be inappropriately overused[1] [2]
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Randomized Controlled Trial
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial;[2] RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group receiving standard treatment (or placebo treatment) as the control. Randomization minimises selection bias and the different comparison groups allow the researchers to determine any effects of the treatment when compared with the no treatment (control) group, while other variables are kept constant. The RCT is often considered the gold standard for a clinical trial. RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions
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Ultrasound Scan
Medical ultrasound
Medical ultrasound
(also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound. It is used to see internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, joints, blood vessels, and internal organs. Its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude any pathology. The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric ultrasound, and is widely used. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is sound waves with frequencies which are higher than those audible to humans (>20,000 Hz). Ultrasonic images, also known as sonograms, are made by sending pulses of ultrasound into tissue using a probe. The sound echoes off the tissue; with different tissues reflecting varying degrees of sound. These echoes are recorded and displayed as an image to the operator. Many different types of images can be formed using sonographic instruments
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Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
(TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MTB).[1]
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Beck Depression Inventory
The Beck Depression Inventory
Beck Depression Inventory
(BDI, BDI-1A, BDI-II), created by Aaron T. Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used psychometric tests for measuring the severity of depression. Its development marked a shift among mental health professionals, who had until then, viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective, instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts. In its current version, the BDI-II is designed for individuals aged 13 and over, and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability, cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished, as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and lack of interest in sex.[1] There are three versions of the BDI—the original BDI, first published in 1961 and later revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A, and the BDI-II, published in 1996
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Clinical Depression
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder
(MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.[1] It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause.[1] People may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that others cannot.[1] Some people have periods of depression separated by years in which they are normal while others nearly alwa
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Social Phobia And Anxiety Inventory-Brief Form
Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory Brief, abbreviated as (SPAI-B), is a Spanish version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. It evaluates the same psychological factors as SPAI related to cognition, behavior and somatic symptoms usually exhibited by persons with social anxiety. Although the psychometrics have been found to be sound,[1] its utility as a screening measure is limited by its length. As an attempt to resolve this situation, Dr. Beidel from University of Central Florida (USA), along with an international team led by Dr. Garcia-Lopez at the University of Jaen (Spain) developed this form in 2008.[2]Contents1 Scoring 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksScoring[edit] The SPAI-B consists of 16 items that are answered with a Likert scale of 5 points (instead of 7, as in the original form). While the original SPAI may be especially useful in providing clinical information for a wide range of social situations, it is time-consuming
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Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
The Liebowitz Social
Social
Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is a short questionnaire developed in 1987 by Michael Liebowitz, a psychiatrist and researcher at Columbia University
Columbia University
and the New York State Psychiatric Institute.[1] Its purpose is to assess the range of social interaction and performance situations feared by a patient in order to assist in the diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. It is commonly used to study outcomes in clinical trials and, more recently, to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatments. The scale features 24 items, which are divided into two subscales. 13 questions relate to performance anxiety and 11 concern social situations
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Social Phobia Inventory
Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) is a questionnaire developed by the department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of Duke University[1] for screening and measuring severity of social anxiety disorder. This self-reported assessment scale consists of 17 items, which cover the main spectrum of social phobia such as fear, avoidance, and physiological symptoms. The statements of the SPIN items indicate the particular signs of social phobia. Answering the statements a person should indicate how much each statement applies to him or her. The SPIN questionnaire is similar to a customer service survey. Each statement of SPIN can be measured by a choice of five answers based on a scale of intensity of social phobia singes ranging from "Not at all" to "Extremely". Each answer is then assigned a number value ranging from least intense to most intense
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Social Anxiety Disorder
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.[1]:15 These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others. Physical symptoms often include excessive blushing, excess sweating, trembling, palpitations, and nausea. Stammering may be present, along with rapid speech. Panic attacks can also occur under intense fear and discomfort. Some sufferers may use alcohol or other drugs to reduce fears and inhibitions at social events. It is common for sufferers of social phobia to self-medicate in this fashion, especially if they are undiagnosed, untreated, or both; this can lead to alcoholism, eating disorders or other kinds of substance abuse
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Alpha-fetoprotein
3MRKIdentifiersAliases AFP, AFPD, FETA, HPalpha fetoproteinExternal IDs OMIM: 104150 MGI: 87951 HomoloGene: 36278 GeneCards: AFP Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
4 (human
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Blood Tests
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood
Blood
tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood
Blood
tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse
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Bitewing
Dental radiographs are commonly called X-rays. Dentists use radiographs for many reasons: to find hidden dental structures, malignant or benign masses, bone loss, and cavities. A radiographic image is formed by a controlled burst of X-ray radiation which penetrates oral structures at different levels, depending on varying anatomical densities, before striking the film or sensor. Teeth appear lighter because less radiation penetrates them to reach the film. Dental caries, infections and other changes in the bone density, and the periodontal ligament, appear darker because X-rays
X-rays
readily penetrate these less dense structures
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Coalworker's Pneumoconiosis
Coal
Coal
workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long exposure to coal dust. It is common in coal miners and others who work with coal. It is similar to both silicosis from inhaling silica dust and to the long-term effects of tobacco smoking.[citation needed] Inhaled coal dust progressively builds up in the lungs and cannot be removed by the body; this leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and in worse cases, necrosis. Coal
Coal
workers' pneumoconiosis, severe state, develops after the initial, milder form of the disease known as anthracosis (anthrac — coal, carbon). This is often asymptomatic and is found to at least some extent in all urban dwellers[1] due to air pollution
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Dental Caries
Tooth
Tooth
decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.[6] The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black.[1] Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating.[1][2] Complications may include inflammation of the tissue around the tooth, tooth loss, and infection or abscess formation.[1][3] The cause of caries is acid from bacteria dissolving the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin and cementum).[4] The acid is produced by the bacteria when they breakdown food debris or sugar on the tooth surface.[4] Simple sugars in fo
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Ophthalmoscopy
Ophthalmoscopy, also called funduscopy, is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or funduscope). It is done as part of an eye examination and may be done as part of a routine physical examination. It is crucial in determining the health of the retina, optic disc, and vitreous humor. The pupil is a hole through which the eye's interior will be viewed. Opening the pupil wider (dilating it) is a simple and effective way to better see the structures behind it. Therefore, dilation of the pupil (mydriasis) is often accomplished with medicated eye drops before funduscopy
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