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Medang Kingdom
East Java: Mdaη i Tamwlang and Mdaη i Watugaluh (near modern Jombang), later moved to Mdaη i Wwatan (near modern Madiun)Languages Old Javanese, SanskritReligion Kejawen, Hinduism, Buddhism, AnimismGovernment MonarchyRaja •  732–760 Sri Sanjaya •  985–1006 DharmawangsaHistory •  Sanjaya established the kingdom (Canggal inscription) 732 •  Dharmawangsa defeat to Wurawari and Srivijaya 1006Currency Masa and Tahil (native gold and silver coins)Preceded by Succeeded byKalinggaSunda KingdomKahuripanThe Medang or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu– Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries. It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java
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Mataram (other)
Mataram may refer to:The historic region of Central Java, used to identify the fertile plain south of Mount Merapi, roughly corresponds to the modern Special Region of Yogyakarta Mataram Kingdom
Mataram Kingdom
(c. 752–1006), a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Java Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
(c
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain, also known as Progo River
Progo River
valley, is the fertile volcanic plain that lies between the volcanoes, Mount Sumbing
Mount Sumbing
and Mount Sundoro to the west, and Mount Merbabu
Mount Merbabu
and Mount Merapi
Mount Merapi
to the east, roughly corresponds to present-day Magelang
Magelang
and Temanggung Regency
Temanggung Regency
of Central Java, Indonesia. Its northern border is limited by hills of Kendal and Mount Ungaran. The plain also borders the Menoreh hills in the southwest and Prambanan Plain
Prambanan Plain
in the southeast. The Progo River
Progo River
runs through the center of this plain, from its source on the slope of Mount Sundoro
Mount Sundoro
to the southern coast of Java facing the Indian Ocean
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East Java
East Java
Java
(Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan)[4] is a province of Indonesia. Located in eastern Java, it includes the island of Madura, which is connected to Java
Java
by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia
Indonesia
and a major industrial center
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Kalasan
Kalasan
Kalasan
(Indonesian: Candi Kalasan), also known as Candi Kalibening, is an 8th-century Buddhist temple
Buddhist temple
in Java, Indonesia. It is located 13 km east of Yogyakarta on the way to Prambanan
Prambanan
temple, on the south side of the main road 'Jalan Solo' between Yogyakarta and Surakarta
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Java Man
Java
Java
Man ( Homo erectus
Homo erectus
erectus; Javanese: Manungsa Jawa; Indonesian: Manusia Jawa) is early human fossils discovered on the island of Java (Indonesia) in 1891 and 1892. Led by Eugène Dubois, the excavation team uncovered a tooth, a skullcap, and a thighbone at Trinil
Trinil
on the banks of the Solo River
Solo River
in East Java. Arguing that the fossils represented the "missing link" between apes and humans, Dubois gave the species the scientific name Anthropopithecus erectus, then later renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus. The fossil aroused much controversy
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Flores Man
Homo
Homo
floresiensis (" Flores
Flores
Man"; nicknamed "hobbit"[1]) is an extinct species in the genus Homo. The remains of an individual that would have stood about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) in height were discovered in 2003 at Liang Bua on the island of Flores
Flores
in Indonesia
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Toba Catastrophe Theory
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba
Lake Toba
in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is one of the Earth's largest known eruptions. The Toba catastrophe theory
Toba catastrophe theory
holds that this event caused a global volcanic winter of six to ten years and possibly a 1,000-year-long cooling episode. In 1993, science journalist Ann Gibbons posited that a population bottleneck occurred in human evolution about 70,000 years ago, and she suggested that this was caused by the eruption. Biologist Michael R. Rampino of New York University
New York University
and volcanologist Stephen Self of the University of Hawaii at Manoa
University of Hawaii at Manoa
support her suggestion. In 1998, the bottleneck theory was further developed by anthropologist Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
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Candi Of Indonesia
A candi (pronounced [tʃandi]) is a Hindu
Hindu
or Buddhist temple
Buddhist temple
in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu- Buddha
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Rice Farming
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia
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Animism
Animism
Animism
(from Latin
Latin
anima, "breath, spirit, life")[1][2] is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.[3][4][5][6] Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism
Animism
is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples,[7] especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions.[8] Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Kejawen
Java Javanese culture Javanese people Sundanese people Religion
Religion
in IndonesiaEarly religiositySunda Wiwitan Hyang Dewi SriHinduism Hinduism
Hinduism
in JavaBuddhism
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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