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Max Faget
Maxime Allen "Max" Faget[1][2] (pronounced fah-ZHAY; August 26, 1921 – October 10, 2004) was a Belizean-born American mechanical engineer
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British Honduras
British Honduras
British Honduras
was the name of a territory on the east coast of Central America, south of Mexico, after it became a British Crown colony in 1862. British Honduras
British Honduras
became a self-governing colony in 1964, was renamed Belize
Belize
in June 1973[3], and gained full independence in September 1981. British Honduras
British Honduras
was the last continental possession of the United Kingdom in the Americas. The colony grew out of the Treaty of Versailles (1783)
Treaty of Versailles (1783)
between Britain and Spain, which gave the British rights to cut logwood between the Hondo and Belize
Belize
rivers
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Space Industries Inc.
Space Industries Incorporated was a company formed in the 1980s for the purpose of building a privately owned space station, which was to be called the Industrial Space Facility (ISF). At the time, the idea of private development in space was a pioneering one. History[edit] Space Industries was founded in Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
by Maxime Faget, who had recently retired as chief of engineering and operations at NASA, as well as entrepreneurs James Calaway, Guillermo Trotti, and Larry Bell. Their plan was to build a space station that would feed off the life support system of the space shuttle when it visited, but would not maintain continuous life support between shuttle visits. Faget proposed this plan because maintaining continuous life support would be cost prohibitive. Joe Allen, a physicist and astronaut, was a partner, as was Westinghouse Electric Corporation
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Harry Julian Allen
Harry Julian Allen
Harry Julian Allen
(1 April 1910 – 29 January 1977), also known as Harvey Allen, was an aeronautical engineer and a Director of the NASA Ames Research Center, most noted for his "Blunt Body Theory" of atmospheric entry which permitted successful recovery of orbiting spacecraft. His technique is still used to this day.Contents1 Career 2 Research 3 Awards and honors 4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] Allen was born in Maywood, Illinois. He attended Stanford University, receiving a Bachelor of Arts in engineering in 1932 and an Aeronautical Engineer professional degree in 1935. In 1936, he joined the NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
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Project Gemini
2:Gemini 8 Gemini 9ALaunch site(s) Cape Kennedy Air Force Station LC-19Vehicle informationVehicle type CapsuleCrew vehicle GeminiCrew capacity 2Launch vehicle(s) Titan II
Titan II
GLV Atlas-Agena
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North American DC-3
The DC-3 was a proposed spaceplane designed by Maxime Faget
Maxime Faget
at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston. The design was nominally developed by North American Aviation
North American Aviation
(NAA), although it was a purely NASA-internal design. Unlike the eventual Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
design that emerged, the DC-3 was a fully reusable launch vehicle two-stage-to-orbit design with a smaller payload capacity of about 12,000 lbs and limited maneuverability. Its inherent strengths were good low-speed handling during landing, and a low-risk development that was relatively immune to changes in weight and balance. Work on the DC-3 program ended when the US Air Force
US Air Force
joined the Shuttle program; they demanded a much greater "cross-range" maneuverability than the DC-3 could deliver, and expressed serious concerns about its stability during re-entry
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Douglas DC-3
The Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner with tailwheel-type landing gear. Its cruise speed (207 mph or 333 km/h) and range (1,500 mi or 2,400 km) revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II
World War II
makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made. The DC-3 was a twin-engine metal monoplane, developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2. It had many exceptional qualities compared to previous aircraft. It was fast, had a good range and could operate from short runways. It was reliable and easy to maintain and carried passengers in greater comfort. Before the war it pioneered many air travel routes
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North American Aviation
North American Aviation
North American Aviation
(NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V
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Space Shuttle Program
The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011. Its official name, Space Transportation System (STS), was taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[1] The Space Shuttle—composed of an orbiter launched with two reusable solid rocket boosters and a disposable external fuel tank—carried up to eight astronauts and up to 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of payload into low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO)
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U.S. Air Force
Department of Defense Department of the Air ForceHeadquarters The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.Motto(s) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win"[7] "Integrity first, Service before self, Excellence in all we do"[8]Colors Ultramarine
Ultramarine
blue, Golden yellow[9]          March The U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
 Play (help·info)Anniversaries 18 SeptemberEngagementsSee listMexican Expedition (As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps) World War I
World War I
(As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
Aviation Section, U.S

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Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center
The Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted. It was built and leased to NASA
NASA
by Joseph L. Smith & Associates, Inc.[2] It was renamed in honor of the late U.S. president and Texas native, Lyndon B. Johnson, by an act of the United States Senate
United States Senate
on February 19, 1973. It consists of a complex of one hundred buildings constructed on 1,620 acres (660 hectares) in the Clear Lake Area
Clear Lake Area
of Houston, which acquired the official nickname "Space City" in 1967. The center is home to NASA's astronaut corps, and is responsible for training astronauts from both the U.S. and its international partners
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STS-2
Engle (left) and Truly Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program← STS-1 STS-3 → STS-2
STS-2
was the second Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
mission conducted by NASA, and the second flight of the orbiter Columbia
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Wake Shield Facility
Wake Shield Facility
Wake Shield Facility
is an experimental science platform that was placed in low Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. It is a 3.7 meter (12 ft) diameter, free-flying stainless steel disk. The WSF was deployed in the wake of the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
at an orbital altitude of over 300 kilometers (186 mi), within the thermosphere, where the atmosphere is exceedingly tenuous. The forward edge of the WSF disk redirected atmospheric and other particles around the sides, leaving an "ultra-vacuum" in its wake. The resulting vacuum was used to study epitaxial film growth. The WSF has flown into space three times, on board shuttle flights STS-60, STS-69
STS-69
and STS-80. During STS-60, some hardware issues were experienced, and, as a result, the WSF was only deployed at the end of the shuttle's robotic arm
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X-15
The North American X-15
North American X-15
was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane
X-plane
series of experimental aircraft. The X-15 set speed and altitude records in the 1960s, reaching the edge of outer space and returning with valuable data used in aircraft and spacecraft design. The X-15's official world record for the highest speed ever recorded by a manned, powered aircraft, set in October 1967 when William J. Knight
William J

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Vacuum
Vacuum
Vacuum
is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure.[1] Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.[2] The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum
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Thermosphere
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. Within this layer of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation causes photoionization/photodissociation of molecules, creating ions in the ionosphere. Taking its name from the Greek θερμός (pronounced thermos) meaning heat, the thermosphere begins about 85 kilometres (53 mi) above the Earth.[1] At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass (see turbosphere). Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation. Temperatures are highly dependent on solar activity, and can rise to 2,000 °C (3,630 °F). Radiation causes the atmosphere particles in this layer to become electrically charged (see ionosphere), enabling radio waves to be refracted and thus be received beyond the horizon
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