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Mauritius
Coordinates : 20°12′S 57°30′E / 20.2°S 57.5°E / -20.2; 57.5 Republic of Mauritius République de Maurice (French ) Repiblik Moris ( Mauritian creole ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Stella Clavisque Maris Indici" (Latin ) "Star and Key of the Indian Ocean" ANTHEM: Motherland Islands of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
(excluding Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin Island) Islands of the Republic of Mauritius
Mauritius
labelled in black; Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin are claimed by Mauritius
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Hakka Chinese
79-AAA-g > 79-AAA-ga (+ 79-AAA-gb transition to 79-AAA-h) THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA . THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CHINESE TEXT
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Hokkien
HOKKIEN-TAIWANESE (/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/ ; from Chinese : 福建話; pinyin : Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Hok-kiàn-oē) or MINNAN PROPER (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien
Hokkien
originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Mandarin Chinese
MANDARIN (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen ); simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China
China
. The group includes the Beijing dialect , the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the NORTHERN DIALECTS (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible . Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion)
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Independence
INDEPENDENCE is a condition of a nation , country , or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government , and usually sovereignty , over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory . CONTENTS* 1 Definition of independence * 1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy * 2 Declarations of independence * 3 Historical overview * 4 Continents * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Article note DEFINITION OF INDEPENDENCEWhether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is a universalizing Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
( Allah
Allah
) and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is a messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries . Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful , all-powerful , unique and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is a universalising Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life , teachings , and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ , or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians
Christians
. Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God
God
and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament
Old Testament

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Vernacular
A VERNACULAR or VERNACULAR LANGUAGE is the native language or native dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary , national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (also called a vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect " as synonyms . The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c. 1250.) It deals with Scanian and Scanian Ecclesiastical Law . An allegory of philosophy and grammar, Trinci Palace , Foligno, Italy, by Gentile da Fabriano , who lived at about the time the Italian language was being standardized
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Urdu
Pakistan
Pakistan
(national and official) India
India
(official as per the 8th Schedule of the Constitution and in the following states/union territories) Official: *
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Marathi Language
MARATHI (English: /məˈrɑːti/ ; मराठी Marāṭhī; Marathi: ( listen )) is an Indian language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people
Marathi people
of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa
Goa
states of Western India
India
, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
India
. There were 73 million speakers in 2007; Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world . Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi
Hindi
, Bengali and Telugu in that order. Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 900 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect
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