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Maurice Duverger
Maurice Duverger (5 June 1917 – 16 December 2014) was a French jurist, sociologist and politician. He was born in Angoulême, Charente. Starting his career as a jurist at the University of Bordeaux, Duverger became more and more involved in political science and in 1948 founded one of the first faculties for political science in Bordeaux, France. An emeritus professor of the Sorbonne and member of the FNSP, he has published many books and articles in newspapers, such as Corriere della Sera, la Repubblica, El País, and especially Le Monde. Duverger studied the evolution of political systems and the institutions that operate in diverse countries, showing a preference for empirical methods of investigation rather than philosophical reasoning. He devised a theory which became known as Duverger's law, which identifies a correlation between a first-past-the-post election system and the formation of a two-party system
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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Legislator
A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are usually politicians and are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national (for example, the European Parliament), national (for example, the United States Congress), regional (for example, the National Assembly for Wales), or local (for example, local authorities).Contents1 Overview 2 Terminology 3 Substitute legislator 4 References 5 See alsoOverview[edit] The political theory of the separation of powers requires legislators to be different individuals from the members of the executive and the judiciary. Certain political systems adhere to this principle, others do not
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Jacques Doriot
Jacques Doriot
Jacques Doriot
(French: [ʒak dɔʁjo]; 26 September 1898 – 22 February 1945) was a French politician prior to and during World War II. He began as a communist but then turned fascist.Contents1 Early life and politics 2 Fascism 3 Collaboration 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and politics[edit] Doriot moved to Saint Denis, near Paris, at an early age and became a labourer. In 1916, in the midst of World War I, he became a committed socialist, but his political activity was halted by his joining the French Army
French Army
in 1917. Participating in active combat during World War I, Doriot was captured by enemy troops and remained a prisoner of war until 1918
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Parti Populaire Français
The Parti Populaire Français (French Popular Party) was a French fascist and anti-semitic political party led by Jacques Doriot
Jacques Doriot
before and during World War II. It is generally regarded as the most collaborationist party of France.Contents1 Formation and early years 2 Ideology and fascism of PPF 3 The PPF during the war3.1 The PPF and the home front 3.2 The PPF and wartime activities outside metropolitan France4 Members 5 See also 6 ReferencesFormation and early years[edit] The party was formed on 28 June 1936, by Doriot and a number of fellow former members of the French Communist Party
French Communist Party
(including Henri Barbé and Paul Marion) who had moved towards nationalism in opposition to the Popular Front. The PPF initially centered around the town of Saint-Denis, of which Doriot was mayor (as a Communist) from 1930–1934, and drew its support from the large working class population in the area
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Bordeaux
www.bordeaux.frUNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial name Bordeaux, Port of the MoonCriteria Cultural: ii, ivReference 1256Inscription 2007 (31st Session)Area 1,731 haBuffer zone 11,974 ha1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(French pronunciation: ​[bɔʁdo]; Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne
Garonne
River in the Gironde
Gironde
department in southwestern France. The municipality (commune) of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
proper has a population of 246,586 (2014)
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Poitiers
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Poitiers
Poitiers
([pwatje] ( listen)) is a city on the Clain
Clain
river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department and also of the Poitou. Poitiers
Poitiers
is a major university centre. The centre of town is picturesque and its streets include predominantly historical architecture, especially religious architecture and especially from the Romanesque period
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Institut D'Études Politiques
Instituts d'études politiques (English: Institutes of Political Studies), or IEPs, are ten publicly owned institutions of higher learning in France. They are located in Aix-en-Provence, Bordeaux, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Paris, Rennes, Strasbourg[1] and Toulouse, and since 2014 Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[2] Their vocation is the study and research of contemporary political science. All students at the IEPs study a curriculum that is highly practical and broadbased, focusing on the full range of the social sciences: law, economics, finance, management, etc. These schools are considered as some of the most selective in France, mainly because they are the place where main political and business leaders are born. These establishments are more known under the name of Sciences Po, followed by the name of the city where they are located (for example Sciences Po
Sciences Po
Bordeaux)
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Vichy France
Vichy
Vichy
France
France
(French: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It represented the unoccupied "Free Zone" (zone libre) in the southern part of metropolitan France
France
and the French colonial empire. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy
Vichy
regime was the nominal government of all of France
France
except Alsace-Lorraine, the German militarily occupied northern France. While Paris remained the de jure capital of France, the government chose to relocate to the town of Vichy, 360 km (220 mi) to the south in the zone libre, which thus became the de facto capital of the French State
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Libération
Libération
Libération
(French: [li.be.ʁa.sjɔ̃], popularly known as Libé [li.be]), is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
and Serge July
Serge July
in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. For its first six or seven years it was a uniquely vibrant and pluralist publication and hugely influential. This was mainly due to its refusal to take paid advertising which meant there was no direct or indirect pressure from advertisers. It was paid for by sales on newsstalls and by subscriptions. Even classified adverts in the back pages (Les Petits annonces) were free. These and the exciting content attracted people to buy it regularly. Another innovation was the "note de la claviste" (ndlc) a comment, often very witty or apt, inserted by the claviste—the typesetter. The cartoons were unique and often savage and side-splitting
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Social Influence
Social influence occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others.[1] Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing. In 1958, Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence.[2]Compliance is when people appear to agree with others but actually keep their dissenting opinions private. Identification is when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity. Internalization is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately.Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others
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Sponsor (commercial)
Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor, is known as sponsor.Contents1 Definition 2 Theories 3 Categories 4 Principles4.1 Selling 4.2 Leveraging and activation5 Sponsorship markets 6 See also 7 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Sponsorship[1] is a cash and/or in-kind fee paid to a property (typically in sports, arts, entertainment or causes) in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property. While the sponsoree (property being sponsored) may be nonprofit, unlike philanthropy, sponsorship is done with the expectation of a commercial return. While sponsorship can deliver increased awareness, brand building and propensity to purchase, it is different from advertising. Unlike advertising, sponsorship can not communicate specific product attributes
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Pyramid
A pyramid (from Greek: πυραμίς pyramis)[1][2] is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape. As such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version. A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground,[3] and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. Pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid
Pyramid
of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla
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North-West Italy (European Parliament Constituency)
In European elections, North-West Italy
Italy
is a constituency of the European Parliament. It consists of the regions of Aosta Valley, Liguria, Lombardy
Lombardy
and Piedmont. As the other Italian constituencies, it has only a procedural goal to choose the elected MEPs inside party lists, the distribution of seats between different parties being calculated at national level (called Collegio Unico Nazionale, National Single Constituency). Elected MEPs in 1979[edit]  Christian Democracy EPP 34.4%   8   Maria L
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Ideology
Ideology
Ideology
is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs, conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in scope than the ideas expressed in concepts such as worldview, imaginary and ontology.[1] Political ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist
Marxist
and critical-theory accounts
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Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).[1][2][3] In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, which is the right to stand for election.[4] The combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage.[5] Suffrage
Suffrage
is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage
Suffrage
describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives
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