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Matthew Carter
Matthew Carter
Matthew Carter
(born 1 October 1937) is a British type designer.[1] A 2005 New Yorker profile described him as 'the most widely read man in the world' by considering the amount of text set in his commonly used fonts.[2][3] Carter's career began in the early 1960s and has bridged all three major technologies used in type design: physical type, phototypesetting and digital font design, as well as the design of custom lettering. Carter's most used fonts are the classic web fonts Verdana
Verdana
and Georgia and the Windows interface font Tahoma, as well as other designs including Bell Centennial, Miller and Galliard.[4][5][6] He is the son of the English historian of printing Harry Carter (1901–1982) and cofounded Bitstream, one of the first major retailers of digital fonts
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Bitmap
In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits (values which are zeros and ones). It is also called a bit array or bitmap index. Bitmap
Bitmap
image downsampled from an Inkscape
Inkscape
vectorial imageIn computer graphics, when the domain is a rectangle (indexed by two coordinates) a bitmap gives a way to store a binary image, that is, an image in which each pixel is either black or white (or any two colors). The more general term pixmap refers to a map of pixels, where each one may store more than two colors, thus using more than one bit per pixel. Often bitmap is used for this as well. In some contexts, the term bitmap implies one bit per pixel, while pixmap is used for images with multiple bits per pixel.[1][2] A bitmap is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images
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Mergenthaler Linotype Company
The Mergenthaler Linotype Company
Mergenthaler Linotype Company
is a corporation founded in the United States in 1886 to market the Linotype machine (/ˈlaɪnəˌtaɪp, -noʊ-/), a system to cast metal type in lines (linecaster) invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. It became the world's leading manufacturer of book and newspaper typesetting equipment; outside North America, its only serious challenger for book production was the Anglo-American Monotype Corporation. It also offered phototypesetting and digital products before being taken over by Monotype Imaging
Monotype Imaging
in 2006.Contents1 Founding 2 History 3 Typefaces 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksFounding[edit] Main article: Linotype machine The invention of a machine to replace the labor-intensive task of setting type by hand was one that many inventors had tackled during the 19th Century
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Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
(also known as London
London
Heathrow)[2] (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic (surpassed by Dubai International in 2014), as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, and the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic
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Bell System
The Bell System
Bell System
was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada
Canada
from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly. On December 31, 1983, the system was divided into independent companies by a U.S. Justice Department mandate. The general public in the United States often used the colloquial term Ma Bell (as in "Mother Bell") to refer to any aspect of this conglomerate, as it held a near-complete monopoly over telephone service in most areas of the country, and is still used by many to refer to any telephone company
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Robert Granjon
Robert Granjon
Robert Granjon
(1513-November 16, 1589/March 1590) was a French type designer and printer. He worked in Paris, Lyon, Frankfurt, Antwerp, and Rome
Rome
for various printers. He is best known for having introduced the typeface Civilité
Civilité
and for his italic type form, the design of which in modern days is used in Garamond
Garamond
Italic. He worked in Lyon
Lyon
as a librarian, printer, and engraver of typefaces. He married the daughter of Bernard Salomon. The first book in his typeface, Civilité, was Dialogue de la vie et de la mort by Ringhieri (1557). The invention made such an impact that King Henry II, on December 26, 1557, gave him an exclusive privilege to use the type for ten years. Granjon's italic had a greater slant angle, slanted roman capitals, and reduced weight and rigor
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Christophe Plantin
Christophe Plantin
Christophe Plantin
(Dutch: Christoffel Plantijn; c. 1520 – 1 July 1589) was an influential Renaissance humanist
Renaissance humanist
and book printer and publisher.Contents1 Life 2 Printing work 3 Legacy 4 Family tree 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksLife[edit] Plantin was born in France, probably in Saint-Avertin, near the city of Tours, Touraine. As a youth he apprenticed as a bookbinder in Caen and also married there. In 1545, he and his wife, Joanna Riviere, set-up shop in Paris, but after three years they chose to relocate to the booming commercial center of Antwerp, where Plantin became a free citizen and a member of the Guild of St Luke, the guild responsible for painters, sculptors, engravers and printers. The quality of his work as a bookbinder brought him into contact with nobility and wealth
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Joh. Enschedé
Royal Joh. Enschedé
Joh. Enschedé
(Dutch: Koninklijke Joh. Enschedé) is a printer of security documents, stamps and banknotes based in Haarlem, Netherlands. Joh. Enschedé
Joh. Enschedé
specialises in print, media and security. The company hosted the Museum Enschedé
Museum Enschedé
until 1990 and has branches in Amsterdam, Brussels
Brussels
and Haarlem.Contents1 History 2 Typefounding2.1 Foundry typefaces3 Anniversaries 4 Services 5 Controversies 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The company was founded in 1703, when Izaak Enschedé
Izaak Enschedé
registered with the Printers Guild in Haarlem.[1] Joh. Enschedé
Joh. Enschedé
has long been associated with the printing of banknotes; the company printed the "Robin" (Dutch Roodborstje), the very first Dutch banknote, in 1814.[2] Since then, Joh. Enschedé
Joh

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Conscription In The United Kingdom
Military service National service Conscription
Conscription
crisis Conscientious objector Alternative civilian service Conscription
Conscription
by countryv t e Conscription
Conscription
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has existed for two periods in modern times
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Oxford
Oxford
Oxford
(/ˈɒksfərd/)[3][4] is a city in the South East region of England
England
and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2016 population of 170,350, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom,[5][6] and one of the fastest growing and most ethnically diverse.[7][8] The city is situated 57 miles (92 km) from London, 69 miles (111 km) from Bristol, 65 miles (105 km) from both Southampton
Southampton
and Birmingham
Birmingham
and 25 miles (40 km) from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world.[9] Buildings in Oxford
Oxford
demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford
Oxford
is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold
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Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge (/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ/[3] KAYM-brij) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston
Boston
metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge
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Computer Font
A computer font (or font) is implemented as a digital data file containing a set of graphically related glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats. Although the term font first referred to a set of movable metal type pieces in one style and size, since the 1990s it is generally used to refer to a set of digital shapes in a single style, scalable to different sizes
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IBM
IBM
IBM
(International Business
Business
Machines Corporation) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S
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John Downer (signpainter)
John Downer (1951-) is an American sign painter, typeface and logo designer.[1][2] Downer began his career as a painter of signs.[3][4][5] Among his best-known digital fonts are Iowan Old Style, Roxy, Triplex Italic, and Brothers.[6][7][8] Downer studied at Washington State University and the University of Iowa.[9][10][11] His work was featured amongst that of others in the 2014 documentary Sign Painters.[12][13][14] He has lectured on type and sign design at conferences and at The Cooper Union.[15]Contents1 Typeface designs 2 Proprietary typefaces 3 References 4 External linksTypeface designs[edit]Iowan Old Style - Aldine old-style serif Roxy (Font Bureau) - stroke-modulated sans-serif Triplex Italic (Emigre) Brothers (Emigre) - display wedge-serif influenced by nineteenth-century lettering Paperback (House Industries) - text serif face with optical sizes SamSans - humanist sans-serif Vendetta (Emigre) - inspired by old-style Venetian serif fonts but with s
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Crosfield Electronics
Crosfield Electronics was a British electronics imaging company founded by John Crosfield (1915 - 2012) to produce process imaging devices for the print industry. The firm was notable for its innovation. The firm was eventually taken over by Fujifilm Japan and named Fujifilm Electronic Imaging, now FFEI Ltd. following a management buy-out in 2008. Sources[edit]Crosfield diary notesThis article about a company of the UK is a stub
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