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Matrix Planting
SOWING is the process of planting seeds . An area or object that has had seeds planted in it will be described as being SOWED. Traditional Sowing Methods CONTENTS* 1 Plants which are usually sown * 1.1 Depth of sowing * 1.2 Sowing types and patterns * 2 Types of sowing * 2.1 Hand sowing * 2.2 Open field * 2.3 Pre-treatment of seed and soil before sowing * 3 See also * 4 References PLANTS WHICH ARE USUALLY SOWNAmong the major field crops, oats , wheat , and rye are sown, grasses and legumes are seeded and maize and soybeans are planted. In planting, wider rows (generally 75 cm (30 in) or more) are used, and the intent is to have precise; even spacing between individual seeds in the row, various mechanisms have been devised to count out individual seeds at exact intervals
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Avocado
The AVOCADO ( Persea americana) is a tree long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico
Mexico
, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae
Lauraceae
. Recent archaeological research produced evidence that the avocado was present in Peru
Peru
as long as 15,000 years ago. AVOCADO (also ALLIGATOR PEAR) also refers to the tree's fruit , which is botanically a large berry containing a single seed. Avocados are commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates throughout the world. They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Avocado
Avocado
trees are partially self-pollinating and are often propagated through grafting to maintain a predictable quality and quantity of the fruit
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Gardening
GARDENING is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture . In gardens, ornamental plants are often grown for their flowers , foliage , or overall appearance; useful plants, such as root vegetables , leaf vegetables , fruits , and herbs , are grown for consumption, for use as dyes , or for medicinal or cosmetic use. Gardening
Gardening
is considered by many people to be a relaxing activity. Gardening
Gardening
ranges in scale from fruit orchards , to long boulevard plantings with one or more different types of shrubs , trees , and herbaceous plants , to residential yards including lawns and foundation plantings, to plants in large or small containers grown inside or outside. Gardening
Gardening
may be very specialized, with only one type of plant grown, or involve a large number of different plants in mixed plantings
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Stratification (botany)
In horticulture, STRATIFICATION is the process of pretreating seeds to simulate natural conditions that a seed must endure before germination . Many seed species have an embryonic dormancy phase, and generally will not sprout until this dormancy is broken. The term STRATIFICATION can be traced back to at least 1664 in Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber , where seeds were layered (stratified) between layers of moist soil and exposing these strata to winter conditions. Thus, stratification became the process by which seeds were artificially exposed to conditions to encourage subsequent germination
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Celsius
The CELSIUS SCALE, also known as the CENTIGRADE SCALE, is an SI scale and unit of measurement for temperature . As an SI derived unit , it is used by most countries in the world. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. The DEGREE CELSIUS (symbol: °C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius
Celsius
scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval , a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty . Before being renamed to honour Anders Celsius
Celsius
in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps
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Tropical Fruit
This LIST OF CULINARY FRUITS contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines . The word "fruit" is used in several different ways. The definition of fruit for these lists is a culinary fruit, i.e. "Any sweet, edible part of a plant that resembles fruit, even if it does not develop from a floral ovary; also used in a technically imprecise sense for some sweet or sweetish vegetables , some of which may resemble a true fruit or are used in cookery as if they were a fruit, for example rhubarb ." Note that many edible plant parts that are true fruits botanically speaking, are not considered culinary fruits. They are classified as vegetables in the culinary sense (for example: the tomato , zucchini , and so on), and hence they do not appear in this list. Similarly, some botanical fruits are classified as nuts (e.g. Brazil nut and various almonds ), or staples (e.g. breadfruit ), and likewise do not appear here
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Seedbed
A SEEDBED or SEEDLING BED is the local soil environment in which seeds are planted. Often it comprises not only the soil but also a specially prepared cold frame , hotbed or raised bed used to grow the seedlings in a controlled environment into larger young plants before transplanting them into a garden or field . A seedling bed is used to increase the number of seeds that germinate . The soil of a seedbed needs to be loose and smoothed, without large lumps. These traits are needed so that seeds can be planted easily, and at a specific depth for best germination. Large lumps and uneven surface would tend to make the planting depth random. Many types of seedlings also need loose soil with minimal rocky content for best conditions to grow their roots. (For example, carrots grown in rocky soil will tend not to grow straight.) Seedbed preparation in farm fields often involves secondary tillage via harrows and cultivators
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
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Weed
A WEED is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields , gardens , lawns , and parks . Taxonomically , the term "weed" has no botanical significance, because a plant that is a weed in one context is not a weed when growing in a situation where it is in fact wanted, and where one species of plant is a valuable crop plant, another species in the same genus might be a serious weed, such as a wild bramble growing among cultivated loganberries . Many plants that people widely regard as weeds also are intentionally grown in gardens and other cultivated settings, in which case they are sometimes called beneficial weeds . The term weed also is applied to any plant that grows or reproduces aggressively, or is invasive outside its native habitat
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Crop Yield
In agriculture , CROP YIELD (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation , and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3). The figure, 1:3 is considered by agronomists as the minimum required to sustain human life. One of the three seeds must be set aside for the next planting season, the remaining two either consumed by the grower, or one for human consumption and the other for livestock feed. The higher the surplus, the more livestock can be established and maintained, thereby increasing the physical and economic well-being of the farmer and his family. This, in turn, resulted in better stamina, better over-all health, and better, more efficient work
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Open Field System
The OPEN-FIELD SYSTEM was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and lasted into the 20th century in parts of western Europe, Russia, Iran
Iran
and Turkey
Turkey
. Under the open-field system, each manor or village had two or three large fields, usually several hundred acres each, which were divided into many narrow strips of land. The strips or selions were cultivated by individuals or peasant families, often called tenants or serfs . The holdings of a manor also included woodland and pasture areas for common usage and fields belonging to the lord of the manor and the church. The farmers customarily lived in individual houses in a nucleated village with a much larger manor house and church nearby. The open-field system necessitated co-operation among the inhabitants of the manor
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Field (agriculture)
In agriculture , a FIELD is an area of land, enclosed or otherwise, used for agricultural purposes such as cultivating crops or as a paddock or other enclosure for livestock . A field may also be an area left to lie fallow or as arable land . Many farms have a field border, usually composed of a strip of shrubs and vegetation, used to provide food and cover necessary for the survival of wildlife. It has been found that these borders may lead to an increased variety of animals and plants in the area, but also in some cases a decreased yield of crops. CONTENTS * 1 Language * 2 Image gallery * 3 See also * 4 References LANGUAGEIn Australian and New Zealand English
New Zealand English
, any agricultural field may be called a paddock. If stock are grazed there, the space may be called a run, e.g. sheep run; cattle run
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Lychee
LYCHEE (variously spelled LITCHI, LIECHEE, LICHE, LIZHI OR LI ZHI, or LICHEE) (Litchi chinensis; Chinese : 荔枝; pinyin : lìzhī) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae . It is a tropical tree native to the Guangdong
Guangdong
and Fujian
Fujian
provinces of China
China
, where cultivation is documented from 1059 AD. China
China
is the main producer of lychees, followed by India, other countries in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
and South Africa
South Africa
. A tall evergreen tree, the lychee bears small fleshy fruits . The outside of the fruit is pink-red, roughly textured and inedible, covering sweet flesh eaten in many different dessert dishes
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Rambutan
The RAMBUTAN (/ræmˈbuːtən/ ; taxonomic name: Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae . The name also refers to the edible fruit produced by this tree. The rambutan is native to the Malay -Indonesian region, and other regions of tropical Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. It is closely related to several other edible tropical fruits including the lychee , longan , and mamoncillo . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origin and distribution * 3 Description * 4 Pollination * 5 Production * 6 Cultivation * 7 Cultivars * 8 Nutrients
Nutrients
and phytochemicals * 9 Gallery * 10 See also * 11 References ETYMOLOGYThe name 'rambutan' is derived from the Malay -Indonesian languages word for rambut or "hair", a reference to the numerous hairy protuberances of the fruit, together with the noun-building suffix -an
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Planter (farm Implement)
A PLANTER is a farm implement , usually towed behind a tractor , that sows (plants) seeds in rows throughout a field . It is connected to the tractor with a drawbar or a three-point hitch . Planters lay the seeds down in precise manner along rows. Planters vary greatly in size, from 1 row to 48, with the biggest in the world being the 48-row John Deere DB120 . Such larger and newer planters comprise multiple modules called row units. The row units are spaced evenly along the planter at intervals that vary widely by crop and locale. The most common row spacing in the United States today is 30 inches. Various machines meter out seeds for sowing in rows. The ones that handle larger seeds tend to be called planters, whereas the ones that handle smaller seeds tend to be called seed drills , grain drills, and seeders (including precision seeders)
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Plant Propagation
PLANT PROPAGATION is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds , cuttings , bulbs and other plant parts. Plant
Plant
propagation can also refer to the artificial or natural dispersal of plants . CONTENTS * 1 Sexual propagation (seed) * 2 Asexual propagation * 3 Heated propagator * 4 Seed
Seed
propagation mat * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography SEXUAL PROPAGATION (SEED) One way to propagate an avocado seed Further information: germination Seeds and spores can be used for reproduction (through e.g. sowing ). Seeds are typically produced from sexual reproduction within a species, because genetic recombination has occurred. A plant grown from seeds may have different characteristics from its parents. Some species produce seeds that require special conditions to germinate , such as cold treatment
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