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Massagetae
The Massagetae, or Massageteans,[1] were an ancient Eastern Iranian nomadic confederation,[2][3][4][5][6] who inhabited the steppes of Central Asia, north-east of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in modern Turkmenistan, western Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. The Massagetae
Massagetae
are known primarily from the writings of Herodotus
Herodotus
who described the Massagetae
Massagetae
as living on a sizeable portion of the great plain east of the Caspian Sea.[7] He several times refers to them as living "beyond the River Araxes", which flows through the Caucasus and into the west Caspian.[8] Scholars have offered various explanations for this anomaly
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[1] Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(6 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(9 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(6 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(31 million). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(pop
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Honorius (emperor)
Honorius (Latin: Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 393 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. During his reign, Rome
Rome
was sacked for the first time in almost 800 years. Even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was precarious and chaotic. His reign was supported by his principal general, Stilicho, who was successively Honorius's guardian (during his childhood) and his father-in-law (after the emperor became an adult)
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Victor H. Mair
Victor Henry Mair (/mɛər/; born March 25, 1943) is an American Sinologist and professor of Chinese at the University of Pennsylvania. Among other accomplishments, Mair has edited the standard Columbia History of Chinese Literature and the Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature. Mair is the series editor of the Cambria Sinophone World Series (Cambria Press), and his book coauthored with Miriam Robbins Dexter (published by Cambria Press), Sacred Display: Divine and Magical Female Figures of Eurasia, won the Sarasvati Award for the Best Nonfiction Book in Women and Mythology.Contents1 Life and career 2 Pinyin
Pinyin
advocacy 3 Selected works 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife and career[edit] Victor H. Mair was born on March 25, 1943, in East Canton, Ohio
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Gutians
The Guti (/ˈɡuːti/) or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
(on the border of modern Iran
Iran
and Iraq) during ancient times. Their homeland was known as Gutium
Gutium
(Sumerian: 𒄖𒌅𒌝𒆠,Gu-tu-umki or 𒄖𒋾𒌝𒆠,Gu-ti-umki)[1][2] Conflict between people from Gutium
Gutium
and the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
has been linked to the collapse of the empire, towards the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. The Guti subsequently overran southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and formed a royal dynasty in Sumer
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Kushan Empire
The Kushan
Kushan
Empire
Empire
(Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Bactrian: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit: कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Parthian: Kušan-xšaθr[8]) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century
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Eastern Iranian Languages
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC). The Avestan language is often classified as early Eastern Iranian. The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto, with some 50–60 million speakers between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan. As opposed to the Middle Western Iranian dialects, the Middle Eastern Iranian preserves word-final syllables. The living Eastern Iranian languages are spoken in a contiguous area, in eastern Afghanistan as well as the adjacent parts of western Pakistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province of eastern Tajikistan, and the far west of Xinjiang region of China, while it also has two other living members in widely separated areas, the Yaghnobi language of northwestern Tajikistan (descended from Sogdian) and the Ossetic language of the Caucasus (descended from Scytho-Sarmatian)
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Language Contact
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics. Multilingualism
Multilingualism
has likely been common throughout much of human history, and today most people in the world are multilingual.[1] When speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for their languages to influence each other. Language contact can occur at language borders,[2] between adstratum languages, or as the result of migration, with an intrusive language acting as either a superstratum or a substratum. Language contact occurs in a variety of phenomena, including language convergence, borrowing and relexification. The most common products are pidgins, creoles, code-switching, and mixed languages
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Sprachbund
A sprachbund (German: [ˈʃpʁaːxbʊnt], "federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact. They may be genetically unrelated, or only distantly related. Where genetic affiliations are unclear, the sprachbund characteristics might give a false appearance of relatedness
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Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
(born c. 330[1], died c. 391 – 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius)
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Claudian
Claudius Claudianus, usually known in English as Claudian (/ˈklɔːdiən/; c. 370 – c. 404 AD), was a Latin poet associated with the court of the emperor Honorius at Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(Milan), and particularly with the general Stilicho. His work, written almost entirely in hexameters or elegiac couplets, falls into three main categories: poems for Honorius, poems for Stilicho, and mythological epic.[1]Contents1 Life 2 As poet 3 Works 4 Editions and translations 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Claudian
Claudian
was born in Alexandria. He arrived in Rome before 395, and made his mark with a eulogy of his two young patrons, Probinus and Olybrius, thereby becoming court poet. He wrote a number of panegyrics on the consulship of his patrons, praise poems for the deeds of Stilicho, and invectives directed at Stilicho's rivals in the Eastern court of Arcadius. He was well rewarded for these efforts
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Stilicho
Flavius Stilicho
Stilicho
(/ˈstɪlɪkoʊ/; occasionally written as Stilico; c. 359 – 22 August 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum) in the Roman army who became, for a time, the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire.[2] He was half Vandal and married to the niece of Emperor
Emperor
Theodosi
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Alexander Cunningham
Sir Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
KCIE CSI (23 January 1814 – 28 November 1893) was a British army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group
Bengal Engineer Group
who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India. In 1861 he was appointed to the newly created position of archaeological surveyor to the government of India; and he founded and organised what later became the Archaeological Survey of India. He wrote numerous books and monographs and made extensive collections of artefacts
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Maeotis
The Sea of Azov (Russian: Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Ukrainian: Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Crimean Tatar: Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe. To the south it is linked by the narrow (about 4 km or 2.5 mi) Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea, and it is sometimes regarded as a northern extension of the Black Sea.[2][3] The sea is bounded in the north by mainland Ukraine, in the east by Russia, and in the west by the Crimean Peninsula. The Don and Kuban are the major rivers that flow into it
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Procopius
Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea
Caesarea
(Greek: Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Latin: Procopius Caesariensis; c. 500 – c. 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.[1] Accompanying the Byzantine chief-general Belisarius
Belisarius
in the wars of the Emperor Justinian, he became the principal Greek-Byzantine historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars (or Histories), the Buildings of Justinian and the now-celebrated (and infamous) Secret History
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Huns
The Huns
Huns
were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that
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