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Mary Osborne, Duchess Of Leeds
Mary Osborne, Duchess
Duchess
of Leeds (1723 – 3 August 1764), born Lady Mary Godolphin, was a daughter of Henrietta Godolphin, née Churchill, 2nd Duchess
Duchess
of Marlborough, and Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin, making her granddaughter to the powerful government trio during the reign of Queen Anne of Great Britain: the famous general and politician John Churchill, 1st Duke
Duke
of Marlborough, and his wife Sarah, Duchess
Duchess
of Marlborough, through her mother; and Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, through her father. Lady Mary was considered to be the illegitimate child of the famous playwright William Congreve, with whom Henrietta, Duchess
Duchess
of Marlborough, was having a long-term relationship. She was, however, recognised by Francis as his own daughter, and was raised by him with the other Godolphin children
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Lucy Aikin
Lucy Aikin (6 November 1781 – 29 January 1864) was an English historical writer. She also published under the pseudonym Mary Godolphin.Contents1 Family and education 2 Writing career 3 Selected works3.1 Works attributed to her as Mary Godolphin4 Notes 5 References5.1 Attribution6 External linksFamily and education[edit] Lucy Aikin was born at Warrington, England, into a distinguished literary family of prominent Unitarians. They were also a family of writers, the most well known of whom was her paternal aunt, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, a woman of letters who wrote poetry and essays as well as early children's literature. Lucy's father, Dr. John Aikin, was a medical doctor, historian, and author. Her grandfather, also called John Aikin
John Aikin
(1713–1780), was a Unitarian scholar and theological tutor, closely associated with Warrington
Warrington
Academy
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Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl Of Godolphin
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, KG, PC (15 June 1645 – 15 September 1712) was a leading British politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. He was a Privy Councillor and Secretary of State for the Northern Department before attaining real power as First Lord of the Treasury. He was instrumental in negotiating and passing the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
with Scotland, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. He had many other roles, including that of Governor of Scilly.Contents1 Family and early career 2 Exclusion and revolution 3 Career under William III and Queen Anne 4 Marriage & succession 5 Gallery 6 Legacy 7 Notes7.1 References 7.2 Primary sources 7.3 Secondary sources8 External linksFamily and early career[edit] He came from an ancient Cornish family, being the son of Sir Francis Godolphin (1605–1667) and nephew of the poet Sidney Godolphin
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Peerage Of England
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain. Until the passage of the House of Lords
House of Lords
Act 1999, all Peers of England could sit in the House of Lords. (Women peers of England were only granted seats with the Peerage Act 1963). The ranks of the English peerage are, in descending order, Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. While most newer English peerages descend only in the male line, many of the older ones (particularly older baronies) can descend through females. Under English inheritance law all daughters are co-heirs, so many older English peerage titles have fallen into abeyance between various female co-heirs. Baronets, while holders of hereditary titles, are not peers and do not confer nobility
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Duchess
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Secretary Of State For Foreign Affairs
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom
Government of the United Kingdom
and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Foreign Secretary is a member of the Cabinet, and the post is considered one of the Great Offices of State
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Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
RA FRS FRSA (/ˈrɛnəldz/; 16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits. John Russell said he was one of the major European painters of the 18th Century. [1] He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect
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Playwright
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Early playwrights 2.2 Aristotle's Poetics techniques 2.3 Neo-classical theory 2.4 Well-made play3 Play formats 4 Contemporary playwrights in America 5 New play development in America 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The term is not a variant spelling of the common misspelling "playwrite": the word wright is an archaic English term for a craftsman or builder (as in a wheelwright or cartwright). Hence the prefix and the suffix combine to indicate someone who has "wrought" words, themes, and other elements into a dramatic form - someone who crafts plays
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Anne, Queen Of Great Britain
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714)[a] was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, Mary, were raised as Anglicans. Three years after he succeeded Charles upon the latter's death, James was deposed in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688
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John Churchill, 1st Duke Of Marlborough
Monmouth RebellionBattle of SedgemoorNine Years' WarBattle of WalcourtWar of the Spanish SuccessionBattle of Schellenberg Battle of Blenheim Battle of Elixheim Battle of Ramillies Battle of Oudenarde Siege of Lille Battle of Malplaquet Siege of BouchainAwards Knight of the Order of the GarterJohn Churchill by the studio of John Michael Rysbrack, c.1730, National Portrait Gallery, LondonGeneral John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, KG PC (/ˈmɑːrlbərə/, often /ˈmɔːrlbrə/;[1] 26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.[a]) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs
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Earl Of Godolphin
Earl of Godolphin
Earl of Godolphin
was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1706 for Sidney Godolphin, 1st Baron Godolphin, the Lord High Treasurer. At the same time, he was created Viscount Rialton. In 1684 he had already been created Baron Godolphin, of Rialton, also in the Peerage of England. He was a leading politician of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a Knight of the Garter
Knight of the Garter
and Governor of Scilly. Upon his death in 1712, his titles passed to his only child, Francis. This 2nd Earl of Godolphin
Earl of Godolphin
married Henrietta, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough. Their only son, William Godolphin, Marquess of Blandford, was childless and predeceased both his parents
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Duke Of Marlborough (title)
Duke of Marlborough (locally /ˈmɔːlbrə/ ( listen) MAWL-brə) is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650–1722), the noted military leader. In historical text, it is often to him that an unqualified use of the title refers. The name of the dukedom refers to Marlborough in Wiltshire. It is one of the few titles in the peerage which allows for suo jure female inheritance, and the only current dukedom to do so. The earldom of Marlborough was held by the family of Ley from its creation 1626 until its extinction with the death of the 4th earl in 1679
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Sarah Churchill, Duchess Of Marlborough
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
(née Jenyns, spelt Jennings in most modern references;[2] 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Queen Anne of Great Britain. Sarah's friendship and influence with Princess Anne was widely known, and leading public figures often turned their attentions to her in the hope that she would influence Anne to comply with requests
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Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke Of Leeds
Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds
Duke of Leeds
KG, PC, DL, FRS (6 November 1713 – 23 March 1789),[1] styled Earl of Danby from birth until 1729 and subsequently Marquess of Carmarthen until 1731, was a British peer, politician and judge.Contents1 Background 2 Career 3 Family 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] He was the older and only surviving son of Peregrine Osborne, 3rd Duke of Leeds and his first wife Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer.[2] Osborne was educated at
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